                              # Elements of probability. (Lecture 3)

## 1. Lecture #_3

Lecture #_3
Elements of probability
1

## 2.

Definition 1
A simple event is an outcome of an experiment that
can not be decomposed into a simpler outcome
Example 1. Tossing 1 fair coin
1 , 2
2 tail (T)
2

## 3.

Example 2. Tossing 3 fair coins at once
1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8
1 HHH 5 TTT
2 TTH 6 HHT
3 THT 7 HTH
4 HTT 8 THH
3

## 4.

A random variable X( ) is a function of , e.g., X( ) is
the number of heads in one trial, hence,
X( 1 ) 3, X( 6 ) X( 7 ) X( 8 ) 2,
X( 2 ) X( 3 ) X( 4 ) 1, X( 5 ) 0
Definition 2
An event is a collection of one or more simple events
4

## 5.

Example 3.
A 2 Heads in one toss
A ω6,ω7 ,ω8
B More than one H in a trial
B ω1,ω6,ω7 ,ω8
C Exactly 2 tails (T)
C ω2,ω3,ω4
D At least one H or one T
D ω1,ω2,ω3,ω4,ω5,ω6,ω7 ,ω8
5

## 6.

Definition 3
The sample space of an experiment is the collection of
all possible simple events
Denote it by Ω
{ 1 , 2 }
For example 1:
For example 2 : { 1 , 2 , ..., 8 }
6

## 7.

Venn diagram
1
2 3
4
B
5
6 7
A
8
Definition 4.
The probability p of a simple event is a number that
measures the likelihood that the event will occur
when the experiment is performed.
7

## 8.

I.
Classical definition of probabilities. If one has n
equiprobable simple events 1 , ..., n , then the
probability
of
p( A)
A i1 , i 2 , ..., im
containing m simple events is
m
P( A )
n
Evidently, that P( ) 1.
8

## 9.

II. We may take p being equal to the relative frequency
f /n of a simple ith event if n is very large.
i
III. We may select p based on a priori knowledge of a
situation under study.
The case III is more frequently occurred. We guess or
formulate a hypothesis H concerning p and, using
statistics, test this hypothesis based on realizations
( x1 , ..., x n ) of a sample X n { X1 , ..., X n }.
Definition 5
The probability P( A) of an event A is calculated
by summing the probabilities of the simple events
belonging to A .
9

## 10. Steps for calculating probabilities

1. List the simple events
2. Assign probabilities to simple events
3. Determine the number of simple events
containing in the event
4. Sum the simple event probabilities to
obtain the event probability
10

## 11.

For example 2
p(ω i ) 1/8, i 1,8
p(A) p(2H) p{ω 6 ,ω 7 ,ω 8 }
1
8
1
8
1
8
3
8
p(B) P(more than 1H)
p{ω1 ,ω 6 ,ω 7 ,ω 8 }
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
8
1
2
p(D) p(Ω) 1 (certain event)
11

## 12.

Compound events
Definition 6
The union of A & B is the event that occurs if
either A or B or both occur ( A B )
A
B
i , i 1, n ,
belong A or B or to both of them
12

## 13.

Definition 7
The intersection of A & B is the event that occurs if
both A and B occur ( A B )
i , belong to both A and B
A - the complement event to A
i of A do not belong to A!
13

## 14.

Example 3
A { 6 , 7 , 8 }, B { 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 }
6 , 7 , 8
A B { 6 , 7 , 8 }
A B { 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 }
1
A
B
14

## 15.

Let a set { 1 , ..., n } be given, then all possible
events (combinations of i th ) (empty set,
corresponding to the improbable event) is algebra S of
events
15

## 16.

If two events A & B are mutually exclusive
(incompatible), then
P( A B) P( A) P(B).
Suppose we have a target. A shooter produced a shot.
A to hit the target
B fail to hit
A&B are incompatible
P( A) P(B) 1
A B is the certain
event
16

## 17.

Axioms of probability
For every (a set of all possible simple events) and S
(algebra of events) we postulate
1) Axiom 1. For every S P(A)
2) Axiom 2. P( ) 1
-is certain event
3) Axiom 3. If S and B S are incompatible, then
P( A B) P( A) P(B).
The following two rules are consequences of axioms:
17

## 18.

P( A B ) P( A ) P(B ) P( A B )
Multiplicative rule
A B
A
B
P( A B ) P ( A | B )P ( B )
P( A B ) P ( B | A )P ( A )
18

## 19.

The conditional probability
r
m
k
A
B
A contains m elements of
B contains k elements of
A B contains r elements of
{ 1 ,..., n }, i th are equiprobable
r
P( A B )
n
k
P(B)
n
19

## 20.

Let the event B occurred. What is the prob. for A to
occur?
r r / n P( A B )
P( A | B )
k k /n
P( B )
P( A B )
P( A | B )
P( B )
20

## 21.

Independence
Events A and B are independent if the assumption
that B has occurred does not alter the probability that
A occurs, or if
P (A | B) = P (A)
or
P (B | A) = P (B)
Otherwise, A&B are dependent
21

## 22.

Example 2
A 6 , 7 , 8 two H in one tos sin g
B 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 than 1 H in one tossing
3
4
8
P(A)
P(B)
P( ) 1
8
8
8
A B 6 , 7 , 8 A
3
P( A B ) P( A )
8
3 4 3
P( A B ) P( A | B )P( B )
4 8 8
3 1 3
3
P( A ) P( B ) P( A B )
8 2 16
8
22

## 23.

Hence, A and B are dependent
P( A B ) 3 / 8 3
3
P( A | B )
P ( A ) !!
P( B )
1/ 2 4
8
For independent events
P(A B) = P(A) P(B)
23

## 24.

Random variable X( (discrete)
X( is the number of H for example 2. From the
symmetry of a coin we may suppose that the
probability p to obtain a head in one trial is
p 1 / 2.(q 1 / 2 1 p) . Then
3 k 3 k
P ( X k ) p q
,
k
k 0,1,2,3.
2
3 2
3 1 1
1 1 3
P ( A ) P ( X 2 )
3
4 2 8
2 2 2
P(B ) P( X 1) P( X 2) P( X 3)
3
0
3
3 1 1
3 1 1
8 3 2 2
8 8 2
24

## 25.

Events (X=2) & (X=3) are mutually exclusive, hence
P ((X=2) (X=3)) = P (X=2)+P (X=3).
We may consider P(X=k) as both known and known
within the unknown parameter p.
25

## 26.

Population moments (discrete case)
Let P (X = k) be the p. d. of X, k {set of discrete
numbers}= .
P( X k ) 1
k K
Definition 9
The initial population moment of P (X = k) of order m
is
m k m P( X k ) E( X m )
k K
EX m - expectation of Xm or
expected value of Xm
26

## 27.

Definition 10
The central population moment of P (X = k) of order
m is
m (k EX)m P( X k ) E( X EX)m
k K
Definition 11 (p.210)
The mean or expected value of a discrete r. v. X is
EX kP( X k )
k K
27

## 28.

Definition 12
The variance of a discrete random variable X is
2 E( X ) 2 (k ) 2 P( X k )
k K
28

## 29.

Example Binomial distribution
P (X k )
n
k
pk (1 p)n k , k=0,n
K 0,1, ...,n
n
EX k
k 0
n
k
pk (1 p)n k
n
kn!
pk (1 p)n k
k 1 k !(n k )!
n
n(n 1)!
p pk 1qn k
k 1 (k 1)!(n k )!
k 1
n
np
n 1
k 1
pk 1qn k
k 1 r k r 1
29

## 30.

p q
np,
r 0
n 1
n 1
r (n 1) r
n 1
(p q)
1
r p q
r 0
n 1
np
n 1
r
r (n 1) r
Thus,
EX np
By the same lines
2
E(X
)
npq
S tan dard deviation
npq (1a)
2
30