Syntax of the sentence
1. Lecture 8 - to be continued…LECTURE 8 - TO BE
2. Lecture 9: “Syntax of the sentence”LECTURE 9: “SYNTAX OF THE SENTENCE”
Syntax of the Sentence. The term of “Sentence”
Syntax of the Sentence. Classification of the sentence.
Syntax of the Sentence. Actual division of the sentence.
3. What is Syntax? What are the differences between a sentence and a phrase? What is a clause? What is a Phrase? What are the mainWHAT IS SYNTAX?
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A
SENTENCE AND A PHRASE?
WHAT IS A CLAUSE?
WHAT IS A PHRASE?
WHAT ARE THE MAIN TYPES OF
WHAT IS THE KERNEL?
WHAT IS THE ADJUNCT?
4. 1. Syntax of the Sentence. The term of “Sentence”1. SYNTAX OF THE SENTENCE.
THE TERM OF “SENTENCE”
What is the sentence?
What clauses do you know?
5. Another definition of the Sentence:ANOTHER DEFINITION OF THE SENTENCE:
The sentence is the immediate integral unit of
speech built up of words according to a definite
syntactic pattern and distinguished by a
contextually relevant communicative purpose.
7. Logical approach to the sentence:A sentence is a proposition (высказывание)
expressed by words.
Sometimes a sentence can be grammatically
correct but logically incorrect.
Ex: Wables wabbed qwably.
8. Phonological definition of the sentencePHONOLOGICAL DEFINITION OF THE
A sentence is a flow of speech between two
pauses, but speech is made up of incomplete
interrupted unfinished sentences.
9. Structural definition of the sentenceSTRUCTURAL DEFINITION OF THE
A sentence is a subject-predicative structure.
BUT!!! In some sentences there are no subjects or
Ex: Night. There? Stop.
10. Basic characteristics of the sentenceBASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SENTENCE
11. 2. Syntax of the Sentence. Classification of the sentence2. SYNTAX OF THE SENTENCE.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE SENTENCE
I like apples.
Go and bring me some!
What do you like?
I do like you!!!
I dislike these apples.
12. Identify the type of the following sentences:IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF THE FOLLOWING
He wasn’t a good guy, was he?
You see me!
Go and rest!
I’d love to let you go home, but
theoretical grammar can’t allow
me doing that.
She doesn’t know Spanish.
Who is to blame?
13. Structural classification of the SentenceSTRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE
I live here.
I live where Asia meets Europe.
I live here and I like living here!
I see him coming.
14. Types of sentences according to the structure:TYPES OF SENTENCES
ACCORDING TO THE STRUCTURE:
Predication is a relation between subject and
predicate (predicative) of the sentence
sentence is a monopredicative unit.
Ex: I went home.
sentence is a polypredicative.
Ex: I went home and
my parents went to the
16. Simple sentenceSIMPLE SENTENCE
I went there.
• Incomplete (1
• Go there!
• What do you
17. The Complex (СПП) and the Compound (ССП) SentencesTHE COMPLEX (СПП) AND
THE COMPOUND (ССП)
to the type of
connection of clause
(придаточное предложение) we
distinguish complex and
18. The main features of the composite sentences are (name some):THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE COMPOSITE
SENTENCES ARE (NAME SOME):
1. It is a poly-predicative unit
2. It is characterized by
3. It is characterized by
international wholeness (unity of
4. They are characteristic of the
literary or written style; it is
seldom used in oral speech or
5. It has 1 predication
19. Composite sentenceCOMPOSITE SENTENCE
[_ ___]=[_ ___]
Ex: They enjoy the
party and I do the
• Complex (СПП)
• [_ ___],(_ ___)
• Where, how, for,
• Ex: I don’t know
how you do it!
20. Type of connection in clauses:TYPE OF CONNECTION IN CLAUSES:
• In compound
sentences the type
of connection of
(the clauses are of
sentences the type
clauses are of
21. Means of connections:MEANS OF CONNECTIONS:
phrases (as long as, in
If sentences are joined
are no connectives
22. 3. Syntax of the Sentence. Actual division of the sentence3. SYNTAX OF THE SENTENCE. ACTUAL
DIVISION OF THE SENTENCE
The notional (смысловой, несущий значение)
parts of the sentence form the nominative
meaning of the sentence.
The division of the sentence into notional parts
can be called the nominative division.
23. Actual division of a sentence: PLEASE, students, do not write!ACTUAL DIVISION OF A SENTENCE:
PLEASE, STUDENTS, DO NOT WRITE!
• (the constituent of a
constituent of a
sentence that adds
sentence, usually but most new
not necessarily the
addition to what has
already been said in
Ex: In the sentence
History I do like,
‘history’ is the theme • The rheme is usually,
of the sentence, even
but not always,
though it is the
associated with the
object of the verb)
24. Now, let’s write! Shorter…NOW, LET’S WRITE!
Theme expresses the starting point of the
Rheme expresses the basic informative part of
As a rule, the theme may coincide with the
subject of the sentence and the rheme – with a
predicative/predicate or object.
Ex: The boy came! ‘The boy’ is the theme. ‘Came’
25. There are special means of expressing the theme.THERE ARE SPECIAL MEANS OF
EXPRESSING THE THEME.
The definite article
The word order
The girl entered the room. The room was big.
26. Means of expressing the rheme:MEANS OF EXPRESSING THE
Lexical means (only, even)
The change of syntactical structure
It was he who did it.
Only he knew the answer.
27. Identify theme and rheme in the following sentences: 1. He opened the door. 2. It was Mary who lived next door. 3. The very boyIDENTIFY THEME AND RHEME IN
THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES:
1. HE OPENED THE DOOR.
2. IT WAS MARY WHO LIVED
3. THE VERY BOY I KNOW IS SAM.
4. GREG WAS BUSY.
5. I SEE WHAT YOU MEAN.
What is a sentence?
What are the types of a sentence?
What is a theme? rheme? Give examples.
Now , let’s do the task!
29. Identify the types of the sentences (semantic/structural/theme/rheme)IDENTIFY THE TYPES OF THE SENTENCES
Max bounded forward.
Communicative aspect: Affirmative sentence.
Structural aspect: monopridicative, 2-member
Actual aspect: theme is ‘Max’, rheme is ‘bounded
30. Identify the types of the sentences (semantic/structural/theme/rheme)IDENTIFY THE TYPES OF THE SENTENCES
31. 1Again Charlie is being too clever!
32. 2Her advice can't be of any help to us.
33. 3You've got the letters?
34. 4...I'm quite miserable.
35. 5That sort of game gave me horrors,
and I never could play it.
36. Thank you very much! It was difficult, though!THANK YOU VERY MUCH!
IT WAS DIFFICULT, THOUGH!