Syntax and its basic notions. (Lecture 4. Part 1)
1. Syntax and its basic notions. Syntactic theories.Lecture 4. Part 1
2. Lecture outlineThe
concerns of syntax.
Syntax: a historical perspective.
The syntactic theories: traditional
and modern. Sentence models.
The syntactic notions.
with the way words are
the external functions of words
and their relationship to other
words within the linearly ordered
units – word-groups, sentences,
the peculiarities of syntactic
units, their behavior in different
sentence structure (the
central concern of syntax);
the word groups as parts of the
groups of sentences.
connection of words, the study of
the formation of the sentence.
Greek ‘syn’ – together, ‘taxis’ –
grammatical structure of sentences
and word-groups and the regularities
of their functioning in speech;
a subfield of linguistics, which
studies the regularities describing
word-groups and sentences, as well as
the strucutre, features, and types of
word-groups and sentences.
syntax of word-groups: the
rules governing the combinability
of words with other words.
The syntax of sentences: types,
relations of words and word
combinations in the sentence.
8. Syntax: a historical perspectivethe
sentence – the text (grammar
– text linguistics);
the place of syntactic studies in
9. From Antiquity to nowadayssentence
important components in a
sentence – the name and the
term was coined, the
composite sentence (the Stoics).
10. From Antiquity to nowadaysUp
to the 20th c.: logical vs.
formal and grammatical views of
Logical: language is the means of
expressing thoughts, the “parts
of thought” are reflected in and
similar to the “parts of the
Formal and grammatical: types
and features of word-groups and
11. The Grammar of Port Royal"General
and Rational Grammar,
containing the fundamentals of
the art of speaking, explained in
a clear and natural manner”;
1660 by Antoine Arnauld and
12. The Grammar of Port Royal“the general grammar”:
1) there’s a single and natural way
to express thought;
2) strict connection b/w the
categories of thought and
3) all languages express the same
13. General grammar deniedComparative-historical view:
language diversity was
no ‘natural way’ to express
logic is no longer the basis.
has to be based
• general syntax is impossible.
14. The 20th c. views of syntax Sentence models (by Barkhudarov)“The parts of the sentence” model
the primary – the subject and the
the secondary – the object, the
attribute, the adverbial modifier.
15. The 20th c. views of syntax Sentence models (by Barkhudarov)The distributive model (Charles Fries):
• the sentence is the sequence of words
of specific word classes, which are
used in particular grammatical forms.
The old man saw a black dog there.
3 1a 2-d D
3 1b 4
+ distribution; – linear, no distinction
b/w certain different structures.
E.G.: English cities and villages vs. old
men and children.
16. The 20th c. views of syntax Sentence models (by Barkhudarov)IC model
• the sentence is hierarchically
• the sequence of classes of words
+ the syntactic relations b/w
• allows to differentiate b/w the
distributionally the same.
17. IC analysis
18. IC analysis
19. The 20th c. views of syntax Sentence models (by Barkhudarov)
Transformational model (Chomsky):
The endless variety of sentences in a
language can be reduced to a finite
number of kernels by means of
The kernel sentences can be
The rules of analysis vs. the rules of
20. The kernel sentences (English)N
V р N (John looked at Mary)
V N (John saw Mary)
is N(John is a teacher)
is p N (John is in bed)
is D (John is out)
is A(John is angry)
21. Different “syntaxes”Traditional
(structural and static):
the structure of the word-groups
and the sentence, their types,
features, structural models.
or functional and
semantic: abstract meanings of
sentence (Charles Bally, modus
22. Different “syntaxes”Generative:
universal deep and
transformations, semantics vs.
view of the sentence – the
utterance; their actual division
(the theme (old) and the rheme
(new)), intonation and word
23. Different “syntaxes”Constructional:
significance/insignificance of a
part of the sentence for the
whole syntactic unit; obligatory
and optional environments of
syntactic elements (I helped her
24. Different “syntaxes”Stylistic:
syntactic units and
functional styles, inversion, etc.
connecting sentences in the
context, the syntactic units and
their roles in the expressiveness
of the text.
25. Different “syntaxes”Cognitive:
character of language.
Pragmatics: the way we use the
syntactic units; Speech acts
It’s cold here (stating a fact,
expressing the will, threatening,
26. The syntactic notionsSyntactic
unit: a combination
that has at least two
constituents; hierarchical; twofold (syntactic meaning and
form), communicative and noncommunicative nature.
word-group, a clause, a
sentence, and a text.
27. The syntactic notionsSyntactic
meaning: the way in
which separate word meanings
sentences (Green ideas sleep
Syntactic form: distributional
Syntactic function: the function
of a unit on the basis of which it
28. The syntactic notionsSyntactic
position: the position of
an element in a sentence; very
important for analytic languages.
syntagmatic relations between
the syntactic units.
29. The syntactic relationsCoordination (independence):
• word group, sentence, text;
• symmetric and asymmetric (pens
adversative (strict but just),
causative-consecutive (He didn’t
30. The syntactic relationsSubordination (dependence,
difference linguistic rank):
• word-group and sentence;
objective (to help a friend);
attributive (a new house);
• the head and the adjunct.
31. Syntactic relationsPredication (interdependence):
primary (the subject and the
predicate): men worked;
secondary (non-finite forms of the
verb and nominal elements): his
reading, for me to know, the boy
running, I saw him run.