The prominent fighters for Kazakhstan independence
Activity of the main members
Interaction of the intellectual elite of the Turkic-Muslim peoples of the Russian Empire
the social and economic renewal the of Muslim community
Ismail Bey Gasprinskii
activity of Kazakhs in the I and II State Dumas of Russia
II State Duma
Petition’s movement
Religious questions
The land issue
Category: historyhistory

The prominent fighters for Kazakhstan independence

1. The prominent fighters for Kazakhstan independence

The prominent fighters for
Kazakhstan independence
History of contemporary Kazakhstan

2. content

Kazakhstan at the beginning of the twentieth
century: the struggle for independence
1.Outstanding persons of Kazakh nation
2.Interaction of the intellectual elite of the
Turkic-Muslim peoples of the Russian
3. Participation of the Kazakhs in activity of
the I and II State Dumas of Russia
4. Petition’s movement


• Tsarist colonial policy had a strong influence on the political views of
the Kazakh youth.
• Strengthening the colonial policy required from the Kazakh national
intelligentsia new tactics and strategy.
• the obtaining the freedom was going through the political struggle to
find new ways and means of struggle.
• The idea of Muslim unity of all peoples, based on the pan-Islamic
movement, served to unite the Turkic- Muslim movement of Russian
colonies and contributed to the growth of anti-Russian sentiment.
• At the turn of the century the growth of national consciousness was
largely due to the merger of two ideas — enlightenment and religion,
received its final shape in Jadidism.
• It should be noted that the Kazakh intelligentsia formed its national
ideology of the national liberation movement of the Kazakh people —

4. Activity of the main members

• The main
representatives of the
Kazakh intelligentsia
were A.Baitursynov,
A.Bokeykhanov and
M.Dulatov and others


• Alikhan Bokeykhanov-a prominent politician,
scientist, publicist , one of the leaders of Alash,
Commissioner of the Provisional Government in
Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan’s first Prime Minister;
• He was born in Karkaralinsk district of
Semipalatinsk region, and was a descendant of the
Sultans of the Middle Zhuz. A.N. Bukeikhanov
educated at St. Petersburg Institute of Forestry.
• In 11-18 October 1905 (Moscow) – Congress with
creation of the Constitutional Democratic Party,
where A.Bokeykhanov was a Delegate of the
Congress from Omsk


• In December 1905 Bukeikhanov initiated
congress of representatives of the five areas
Kazakhstan in Uralsk .
• The Congress was decided to establish a branch
of the Kazakh National Cadet Party.
• In July 9, 1906 by the decree of Nicholas II First
Duma was dissolved; and A.N. Bukeikhanov was
among the signatories of the Vyborg manifesto
against the dissolution of the Duma, for which he
was arrested.


• A.N. Bukeikhanov had plans to establish a
national - democratic party.
• At first, decided to organize a national
newspaper, which would become
- the mouthpiece of the national communications,
-to revival of the people and understanding role
of activity Kazakh people.
• 1913-1918- The newspaper was named
"Kazakh”. The outstanding representatives of the
national intelligentsia were involved for the
newspaper. There were:


• A. Baitursynov - The editor of the newspaper
"Kazakh”( Kazakh public and state official, educator,
linguist, literary critic, turcologist, translator);
• M. Dulatov one of poet, prose writer (1885-1935
years), his first collection of poems "Oyan, Kazakh" (
"Wake up, Kazakh") came out in 1909. ( one of the
leaders of Alash Orda Government and the national
liberation movement in Kazakhstan);
• B. Karataev 1860-1934
- The other initiator of the Kazakh Congress in Uralsk,
and creator of a national branch of the Kadet party a descendant of Abulhairb -khan.
- a deputy of the State Duma II;


• The newspaper "Kazakh" and the magazine "Aikap"
expressed of the various ideological and political
opinions and trends among the national
"Kazakh" - the idea of a liberal-democratic direction,
around the consolidated of A. Bukeikhanov, A.
Baitursynov, M. Dulatov and others.
• The publisher and editor of "Aikap" was M. Seralin.
J. Sydalin, B. Karataev, S. Toraigyrov, S. Seifullin, B.
Maylin collaborated in this journal and
Publications of the newspaper and magazine
-expressed national ideas,
- the interests of the Kazakh people, its colonial status.

10. Interaction of the intellectual elite of the Turkic-Muslim peoples of the Russian Empire

• Crisis of the beg XX c. led to activity of different representatives of
Russian society:
• In 1905 - 2 documents:
- Regulation of 17 April 1905 became the significant document for
Muslims with declaration the principle of religious tolerance
- is not allowed forcible retention in the faith,
- the transition to Islam should not have been prosecuted.
• Manifesto of October 17, 1905,
-declared the basic civil liberties, including freedom of conscience.
These and other legal acts, starring many of the existing restrictions
for the Muslims, reflecting a process of gradual reorientation of
Russian society and the state of the legal system on the principles of
bourgeois right-centered individual freedom. However, the process
by 1917 has not been completed.
• In the early XIX century religious and political reaction of Muslims
of Russia took two main forms: religious revivalism and reformism

11. the social and economic renewal the of Muslim community

• Dzhadidizm - one of the main tendencies of the Muslim reform reform of the religious education system
• The old Muslim school (madrassa)
-gave knowledge, consisting of religious and moral values;
-paid little attention to other forms of knowledgein.
• Dzhadidist’s schools were designed
-to make great efforts to connect modern (including Western)
knowledge and Islamic culture,
-to introduce modern science in Islamic knowledge.
This meant the introduction of elements of the secular model of
perception of the world based on the principles of rationality.
• The formation of the ideology of the national liberation movement
began with
-a reference to the national culture and the revival of interest in the
national language,
-to fostering a sense of patriotism and formation of national


• In August 1905, was held the first Congress of
Muslims of Russia on the Volga River.
• Meeting was chaired by Ismail Bey Gasprinskii.
• The main idea about the unification of all Russian
Turkic Muslims into one organization for a
successful defense of their interests received the full
support of the Congress.
• It was decided to create a party "Ittifak alMuslimin" («Muslim Union"), which was to all legal
means to fight for the abolition of "all limitations
imposed upon Muslims applicable governmental
regulations and administrative practices, and full of
Muslims equation in all rights: political, civil and
religious ".

13. Ismail Bey Gasprinskii

• founder of Jadidism
• a public figure, philosopher, pedagogue and
• In 1871-1875 travelled to Europe, visited
Egypt, India, Turkestan;
• In 1881 published his famous work "Russian
Islam: Thoughts, Notes and Observations of a
Muslim" in which he criticized the education
system and internal policy of the Tsarist
Government towards the nations


• The end of XIX - early XX
centuries characterized by the
strengthening cultural
cooperation of Turkicspeaking peoples, (the VolgaUral region and Western
• This manifested development
and rising of the national
movement among the Turkicspeaking peoples.
• Jadid’s reform of Islamic
education, religion and way of
life, a requirement to develop
national culture means the
spiritual affirmation and
ideological justification of the
Turkic peoples
• Some sources, including the
articles of A. Bukeykhanov, A.
Baytursynov, M. Dulatov, and
others, outline how
respectfully Kazakh
intellectuals behaved towards
the ideas and activity of Ismail
• As a result, by spring 1917 the
leaders of the future party had
seriously developed concept of
identity of Kazakhstan as a
sovereign state

15. activity of Kazakhs in the I and II State Dumas of Russia

• The 1 Duma lasted from April to July 1906
-The Duma elected brightest representatives of
different political parties, people and different
regions of the country.
-In the works of Duma a lot of attention was paid
to the problems of
public education and the development of
cultural-national autonomy,
protection of national minorities from the
tyranny of officials.
Parliamentary ideas were picked up and saved by
the progressive intelligentsia at that time


• Alikhan Bukeikhanov as a deputy of State Duma stressed the
-to respect national interests,
- raise the problem of the Kazakh people;
• Representatives of Kazakhstan
- joined to the Muslim faction of the Duma, and actively
participated in the drafting of the agrarian law.
- insisted on the transfer of land to the provinces, on the need to
take attention to nomadic population not only the interests of
sedentary people.
• The deputies worked only 72 days, only 39 managed to hold
• But during in this time the needs and aspirations of the
Kazakhs became the property of the general public.
The work of the State Council attended by Kazakhs-Deputes
from Turgay region - A. Birimzhanov, Ufa - S. Zhantoreev,
Ural - A. Kalmenov, Astrakhan - D. Noyan-Tupdutov, Akmola
- Sh Kosshigulov and Semipalatinsk - A. Bukeikhanov

17. II State Duma

• In the elections won from
Akmola region - Sh Kosshigulov,
Turgay - Court Officer A. Birimzhanov,
Semipalatinsk - T. Nurek,
Semirechye’s region - engineer M. Tynyshbaev,
Syrdarya - a merchant T. Allabergenuly,
Ural - lawyer B. Karatay,
Astrakhan province - lawyer B. Cullman.
• Kazakh people’s representatives entered into the
commission of the State Duma.
Ahmet Birimzhanov went to the commission for drafting
the Law on the Elimination of courts-martial,
Bakhytzhan Karatay - the Commission of consideration of
letters, statements and petitions, for the freedom of
conscience and the agrarian commission
Mukhamedzhan Tynyshbaev - in the agrarian commission.

18. Petition’s movement

• In the early XX century petition - form of the Kazakh people’s
struggle for their rights:
Karkaralinsk petition
1905 at the Congress of Kazakh nobility near Karkaralinsk on
Koyandy-Botov fair drawn up
signed by 42 influential Kazakh of the Karkarala district of
Semipalatinsk region;
composed in Omsk , then forwarded to Karkaralinsk, and June
22, 1905 sent to the Tsar.
• In drawing up the petition actively conducted by
A.Bukeyhanov, A.Baytursynov, Zh.Akbaev, T.Nurekenov and
• Petition, addressed to the Minister of Internal Affairs,
translated into Russian by T.Nurekenov. It consisted of 47
• Copies of Karkaralinsk petition to the Tsar were sent to
editors of Russian newspapers.
• The petition asked to solve religious issues, education and
justice, land issues

19. Religious questions

• It was proposed to subordinate religious affairs of
Muslims to Orenburg Spiritual Assembly. Kazakhs
- a ban visit of Kazakh villages by the Orthodox
- a ban on the age of majority of the Kazakhs, the
transition to another religion.
• In questions of Education and the Kazakh language:
- Offered compulsory teaching basics of Islam in schools,
but then and later learning to read and write Russian.
-Against the teaching of Christianity in the schools of
-Using of the Kazakh language in offices.
-Ensure that officers knew the Kazakh language.
-Clerks, messengers and guards must be from the local

20. The land issue

• Kazakhs demanded to remain in jurisdiction of
the hosts’ summer and winter pastures in the
solving of land question
• Return the ground taken from the steppe for the
past 20 years
• Allow free use of the forests, salt lakes and fish.
• Kazakhs demanded to transmit free land of the
Kazakh nomads only to Muslim-Bashkirs.


• Beginning of XX c. characterized by the activity
of Kazakh intelligence;
• The best sons of Kazakh nation participated in
political life of Empire, presented the demands
and petitions of Kazakhs,
• Created the newspapers and magazines for
• It shows the growth of political consciousness of
the Kazakhs
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