The brief content of the lecture
New economic policy
Policy of “Small October”
Industrialization and collectivization in Kazakhstan
Positive Results and difficulties
Positive aspects:
Negative aspects:
Negative aspects:
Negative aspects:
. Social-political life in 30-ies in Kazakhstan
Control questions
Categories: economicseconomics historyhistory

Formation of the Soviet totalitarian regime in Kazakhstan character, actions and consequences


lecture #05:
Formation of the Soviet totalitarian
regime in Kazakhstan: character,
actions and consequences
Zulfiya Abdikhalikovna
historian scientist

2. The brief content of the lecture

Policy of Soviet power :
- in economy: NEP, industrialization, collectivization
-in political life: creation of totalitarian regime
-in social life: propaganda of socialism and communism

3. New economic policy

I WW, National-liberation movement in 1916,
revolutions 1917, civil war brought economic chaos and
destruction. Society needed in new methods of
March 8-16, 1921 - X Congress of RCP (b) with decision
about transferring from the policy of “military
communism” to New Economic Policy because
Soviet and party organs acted by violent methods to collect bread, meat,
agricultural raw. Aul population upraised in Semipalatinsk, Kustanai,
Akmolinsk, Petropavlovsk, Kokchetav uezds.
1921-1922 - Land-water reform were returned Kazakh lands,
which were seized for Siberian, Uralsk Cossacks troops in
Cisirtysh and left side of Ural, Semirechye and Southern
More than 1 mln 385 th. des. received peasants.
1921 - formation of “Koshchi” union which took part in realization
of land reform.

4. Policy of “Small October”

1925-1933 - F.Goloschekin . the leader of the Kazakh
Revolutionary Committee – Kazkraikom
Policy of “Small October”- one of the ways of industrialization
and collectivization in Kazakhstan. “Kazakhstan should been
develop as raw material region”, the extractive industry were
primarily developed.
The industrialization of Kazakhstan was realized by
commanding, administrative methods with absolute
subordination to the center.
The Decree of the 27th of August 1928 “About the confiscation
and expulsion of the largest bays and semi-feudal auls and
their private properties” gave the right for the Soviet
authorities to send wealthy Kazakh people to exiles. 657 rich
Kazakh bays were sent to exile.
145 thousand numbers of their herds were taken them by cruel
means in order to set the first collective farms in Kazakhstan.

5. Industrialization and collectivization in Kazakhstan

Construction of socialism in Kazakh SSR included:
The ways of building of socialism
“Cultural revolution”
1925 – XIV Congress of USP (b)
direction to industrialization
The main aim of industrialization:
- to make Kazakhstan on a shot space of time highly developed
country instead of agrarian one.
- It meant development of hard industry, car industry;
- restoration and construction of new mines,
- undertakings of all branches of industry, based on the local raw
materials, building of new railroads and technical communications
for economy. There was needed formation of working class, skilled
workers and trained specialists.

6. Positive Results and difficulties

Kazakhstan occupied 7th place in USSR in gross output
of industry;
6th place – output of electricity;
3rd- mining of coal;
3rd- mining of oil;
1st- production of lead;
Kazakhstan became the main productivity of
non-ferrous metals; Output of nickel, tin, wolfram.
Difficulties : economic backwardness of Kazakhstan;
remains of patriarchal-feudal relations;
difficult access of raw materials;
absence of infrastructure;
deficit of skilled workers

7. Positive aspects:

One of the most important objects of industrialization Tukksib-Trans
Siberian rail road
joined Siberia with the Central Asia. This
construction made people much closer to each other.
The other objects were:
-the Chimkent lead plant, the Balkhash brass works, Ashisai
polymetallurgy, Ghezkazgan, Ust-Kamenogorsk and others.
-The chemical industry was developed in Chimkent, the oil mining – in
Emba, the produce of electricity started in Karaganda,
the food industry – in Almaty and Semipalatinsk and etc.
Ural-Siberia-Kazakhstan occupied leading position in industry of
cooper, zinc, lead and others strategically materials.
Oil’s Emba was part of oils base – “Second Baku” between Volga and
Soon the policy of industrialization brought effects:
- by the year of 1939 Kazakhstan became industrial republic with its
share of 58,9%.
-The fast process of urbanization took place in Kazakhstan’s Steppe: by
the year of 1939 were established 88 industrial cities and the share of
their population had been increased to 27,7%.
-There was formed the working class of Kazakhstan: the number of
them increased to 33,8%.

8. Negative aspects:

the huge sums of money were spent into industrialization while the agrarian
section was lack of these resources.
the industry of Kazakhstan was oriented to serve the needs of the Russian
enterprises (like old colonial way).
instead of building of local reprocesses it used to sent its raw materials to the
Russian plants. The Balkhash brass works (kombinat) provided 150 plants of
Russia and Ukraine by brass and cooper.
there were not developed the most modern branches of industry like heavymachine-building, electronics, cars, etc.;
were developed branches of mining and chemical industries; rare metal, oil,
coal, phosphorus free pumped out ( выкачивать). Oppositionist S. Sadvakasov
said “Kazakhstan was and remained colonial status.
the migration process also was increased from Russia, Ukraine, Byelorussia and
other parts of the USSR, that brought the reduction of the native population:
after the starvation of the 20-ties and 30-ties the Kazakhs number had been
reduced to 38%. In result of growth of temps industrial building showed deficit
of working power. 559 thousand people were interred: there were Komsomolsy,
special settlers (migrated Kulaks- раскулаченные)
One of difficulties of industrialization with restoration of commandbureaucratic methods of ruling and substitution of people power by
personality dictatorship.

9. collectivization

The course to the mass collectivization was determined by
the XV Congress of the All-Union CP(b) (December,1927).
The task of the realizing of the “transition of individual
peasant farms to the way of the large production” was put.
According to the perspective plan, 5144 collective farms were
organized in Kazakhstan to the 1 of October 1929. They
consisted of 92 th. peasant farms or 7.2 of their total
On the initiative of F.Goloshchekin, the collectivization in
Kazakhstan was revised in that way, that by autumn 1930
not less than 350 th. farms, or 80% of their total number in
the grain zones “will have been involved by collective
Kazkraicom took instruction to “collectivize” the cattle
as a whole, and agricultural implements.
In 1930 - 87136 farms were settled, in 1933 – 242208.

10. Negative aspects:

violence and terror – the main forms of collectivization
It was formed not taking into account the local conditions,
type of the economy, the necessary preliminary preparation.
forced settling of the nomadic and semi-nomadic farms
(collectivization was added by)
for the settling were absent the industrial base, dwellings, the
necessary supplies, the cultural-social objects
On August 27, 1928 CEK and SPC adopted decree
“About confiscation and eviction of bais and semifeudals”
According this document in 1930-1931 only inside of Kazakhstan
-about 32 thousand people were dispossessed as kulaks.
-5500 families were moved out of Kazakhstan.
In the same years Kazakhstan became the place of the “deportation
of kulaks”. 44164 families or about 200 thousand people were
settled in a new place, in 1932-1933 the number of the deported
kulaks was increased.

11. Negative aspects:

collectivization brought the dramatic effects upon the
traditional lifestyles of the Kazakh nation by the forcible
means of setting;
the downfall of harvest brought “Great starvation” in 19321933: 2,1 mln people died (from 6,2 mln people);
the number of cattle reduced to 4,5 mln and the territory of
pastures also were cut down;
about 1 mln people left their native land in order not to be
repressed or put into prison or killed;
the most dissatisfied people organized revolts and
uprisings (Semipalatinsk, Suzak, Syr-Darya, Almaty,
Western Kazakhstan)

12. . Social-political life in 30-ies in Kazakhstan

Totalitarian character of socialism:
Lands, factories and plants, kolkhozes became state’s property. State -bureaucratic
regulation, planning, and redistribution confirmed according the new Constitution of
USSR 1936, the system of one-party dictatorship. Republics hadn’t juridical initiations,
workers weren’t owners of factories, peasants were alienated from lands. So socialism
took totalitarian, barracks character.
Political repressions were in Kazakhstan. There were constructed special reformatory
camps : Karaganda reformatory-labour camp of special regime (Karlag, in Karaganda
existed 25 observations for special migratory), Steplag, ALZGIR – for relatives (wives) of
-Kh. Dosmukhamedov, A.Bokeikhanov, Aimayitov were the first victims of this policy.
-In 1937-1938 terror took masses character. Peculiarity -persecution not only enemies of
Soviet power but strugglers for communist ideas also. At that time were shot
revolutionists, represents of Kazakh literature S.Seifullin, B.Maylin, I.Zhansugurov,
M.Zhumabayev, K.Zhubanov, A.Asfendiarov. 101 thousand Kazakhstani people were
repressed; 27 thousand of them were shot.
Transformation of Kazakh Autonomy Soviet Socialistic Republic into Kazakh
Soviet Socialist Republic.
-December 5, 1936 VIII Extraordinary Congress of Soviets took new Constitution of USSR
-In March 1937 was adopted Constitution of KSSR which declared that
politic based on Soviets of deputes of workers; economy based on socialist system and
socialist property to work tools; Kazakh SSR owned all rights for decision of political,
economic and cultural problems of republic.


So, to 40-ies,
Kazakh people went to territorial autonomy, run
through difficult and contradictions;
Industry quickly had been developed; changed social
structure of population, there were successes in
education and culture
Kazakh SSR became one of depended on Centre
In country confirmed totalitarian barracks socialism
and Kazakhs paid expensive for these achievements.

14. Control questions

Remember the historical terms and notions
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