A COMPLICATION OF
BY: FATOKE BABATUNDE
A peptic ulcer is a mucosal defect which
penetrates the muscularis mucosae and
muscularis propria .
• Produced by acid-pepsin aggression
70-90% of ulcers are associated with
Helicobacter pylori a spiral-shaped bacterium
that lives in the acidic environment of the
stomach. • Ulcers can also be caused or
worsened by drugs such asAspirin, Plavix,
• Meckel’s Diverticulum
• Type I: Ulcer along the body of the stomach, most often along the lesser curve
at incisura angularis along the locus minoris resistentiae.
• Type II: Ulcer in the body in combination with duodenal ulcers. Associated with
Type III: In the pyloric channel within 3 cm of pylorus. Associated with acid
• Type IV: Proximal gastroesophageal ulcer
• Type V: Can occur throughout the stomach. Associated with chronic NSAID use
Usually, children and the elderly do not develop any symptoms unless complications have
Upper digestive bleeding is the most
Sudden large bleeding can be lifethreatening.
It occurs when the ulcer erodes one
of the blood vessels, such as the
Erosion of the gastro-intestinal
wall by the ulcer leads to spillage
of stomach or intestinal content
into the abdominal cavity.
Perforation at the anterior surface of the
stomach leads to acute peritonitis, initially
chemical and later bacterial peritonitis. The
first sign is often sudden intense
Posterior wall perforation
leads to pancreatitis; pain
in this situation often
radiates to the back.
Sudden, severe pain in the
belly (abdomen), usually in the
Pain spreading to the back or shoulder
Upset stomach (nausea) or vomiting
Lack of appetite or feeling full
Swollen belly or feeling bloated
Other indicators of toxicity (such as peritoneal irritation,
fever, and increased white blood cell count with left shift)
may actually be absent in both elderly and
immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, other acute
conditions, such as myocardial infarction, dissecting aortic
aneurysm, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, diverticulitis,
appendicitis, and renal colic can mimic the symptomatology
of perforated PUD.