Some Basic Questions before starting …
- Why is Refrigerated Transport needed?
- What commodities are transported under controlled
- What Temperature range can be offered?
- What other features can a Reefer Container
accomplish (other than Temperature?)
2. Refrigerated Containers are primarily used to maintain the cargo at a given TemperatureMore than 5 working days are required to
decrease the cargo temperature from 5°C to
-18°C inside Reefer container.
During this period the cargo continues to
develop bacteria down to -15°C.
As a comparison, a Cold storage can
decrease the temperature of 20 Tons of
meat from 3°C to -20°C in just a few hours.
Therefore the main function of a reefer
container is to maintain the temperature of
the cargo and not to decrease it.
What a reefer container can do:
Maintain Temperature as required
Regulate Air Exchange up to 240 m3/h
Monitor Humidity level
What we have to do:
PTI (Pre - Trip Inspection)
Follow handling procedures, stuffing etc.
Ensure proper routing, trans-shipments, plugging and
monitoring, repair malfunctions etc
Once temperature deviations have occurred, they cannot be
reversed! Maintain the cold chain from packing to
4. What is carried in reefers ?Meat, fish, seafood
Dairy products, candy, confectionary
Flowers, bulbs and other horticultural products
But also Chemicals, biological products,
Or Photographic supplies, electronic components
Stop Bacteria and enzyme action…
Dry 95 to 55%
-5 to -25
From +10°c to -2°c
accuracy is 0.5°c to
protect the cargo.
6. WORLDWIDE REEFER TRADE DEMANDWorldwide trade of perishable reefer cargoes
221 million tonnes in 2016
+33 M tonnes between 2016 and 2021
(average of 2.8% a year)
Seaborne perishable reefer cargoes
112 million tonnes in 2016 (+6%)
Exotic fruits, meat and bananas lead the growth.
7. WORLDWIDE REEFER TRADE SUPPLY: conventional vessels v.s. reefer containers›
Specialized reefer fleet
Reduction of 262 vessels and 94,7 Mcbft in 10 years
Average age = 26 years
546 vessels (183 million cubic meter)
4% of total reefer capacity in cubic meter
Carry over 18% of the cargo in tonnes
+7% in 2017
Average age = 12 years
CMA CGM = 12% of total teu capacity
8. WORLDWIDE REEFER TRADE SUPPLY AND DEMAND Conventional Vessels vs ContainersModal split per commodity
Seaborne perishable reefer cargo : modal split
Containerization on the way!
Resulting in usual competition for market share
influencing the rate stability.
Source : Drewry Maritime Research, Sextant Consultancy
9. Global Reefer Seaborne Market1. Perishables transported worldwide
2015: 192 million tons
2020: 250 million tons
2. Perishables transported by sea (55%)
2016: 106 million tons
2020: 130 million tons
3. Reefer Containers (81% and increasing)
2015: 84.75 million tons
2020: 109 million tons
4. Reefer Conventional vessels (19% and decreasing)
2015: 27 million tons
2020: 21 million tons
Source : Drewry Maritime Research, Sextant Consultancy
10. Major Reefer fleets* (teu): 77% of total fleet* (Estimated for 2018)
11. Reefer ContainersReefers are refrigerated
containers used for the
cargo. They are able to
maintain the appropriate
ashore, on board or
during land transport.
Reefer containers are
perfectly adapted to
intermodal and door-todoor solutions.
Controlling the temperature
› Frozen mode: temperature control is accurately achieved through the return air.
› Chilled mode: temperature control is accurately achieved through the supply air flow.
› Forced circulation of cool air prevents chilled products from ripening too quickly,
ensuring a longer shelf-life and maintaining the market value.
› In order to remove the unwanted gas and moisture generated by respiration (which
can affect quality of the products), fresh air can be exchanged at the rate of 0 to
260 m3/hour, depending on the requirements and the kind of Reefer used.
45’ Pallet Wide Reefer Containers were
specifically designed with the “Europallet” in
mind, allowing a largest number of pallets to
be loaded (33). The equipment ensures
optimum utilization of space. Shippers
benefit by being able to load more
Europallets than they would in a standard
40’ High Cube Containers
45’ Pallet Wide Containers
Super Freezer Containers
Some products have to be transported
at ultra-low temperatures.
The Super Freezer Container can
maintain temperatures as low as -60
°C thanks to a double-compressor
unit. They are equipped with a
GPS/GSM tracking system that
transmits information in real time
(temperature/alarm status, etc.).
14. Controlled Atmosphere Fleet• CMA CGM Group is able to offer a large and
diverse fleet of Controlled Atmosphere Containers,
meeting various green products storage and
• Advantages of the proposed CMA CGM CA fleet:
• Integrated with the Reefer, uses the main power to
• Transparency assured by built in sensors
• Scrubbing CO2 without using atmosphere air
• Lower dependency on Container’s age
ENSURE PRODUCT QUALITY
• Controlled atmosphere technology controls the atmosphere
• Enhanced functionality to help slow down the ripening process
of fruits and vegetables by removing ethylene.
EXTENDED TIME FOR DISTRIBUTION AT DESTINATION, AND REACHING
MARKETS WITH LONGER TRANSIT TIMES
• By accurately controlling the temperature and the atmosphere
surrounding the cargo, shelf life of fruits can now be extended.
• Delivery to remote markets and new destinations made
TECHNOLOGY TO MANAGE
THE WAY YOUR FRUIT CARGO
BREATHES AND INCREASE SHELF-LIFE
Controlled Atmosphere is a special mixture of gases, created through alteration and permanent control of its components.
The control of the atmosphere can be passive (control based on cargo respiration) or active (machine-created atmosphere)
ACTIVE CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE
PASSIVE CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE
New fleet of Containers equipped with Daikin
machineries, able to inject Nitrogen and alter
the atmosphere to targeted levels
Large fleet of containers
equipped with Starcool CA.
The system controls the gases
resulting from fruits’ and
respiration to the targeted
exceeding CO2 and adding
atmosphere if needed.
Two technical solutions to ensure your product quality.
Contact your local sales to select the best option for you.
16. StarCool CA• Integrated Containers assuring low gas leakage;
• The system is operated by continuously surveilling
the CO2 and O2 levels;
• Able to remove CO2 whilst maintaining the Oxygen
within the container;
• Transparency during the trip, with possibility to
modify the settings;
• Alarms notification, alerting the operator (Terminal,
Vessel) in case of abnormalities, followed by
controlled and automated emergency action.
17. CMA CGM presents CLIMACTIVE, The most advanced technology in active controlled atmosphere for refrigerated containersCLIMACTIVE is the latest and most advanced solution to maintain sensitive
commodities’ freshness to destination, by faster reducing the level of oxygen
inside the container equipped with DAIKIN Active CA.
CLIMACTIVE is created for highly sensitive commodities that require special
attention, such as fresh fruits and vegetables due to their biological
specificities and maturation time. It specifically targets:
high added value products (Blueberries, asparagus …),
long transit time products (Snow peas, melons …),
organic products (Grapes, bananas …).
18. CMA CGM presents REEFLEX, the most advanced solution for transportation of liquidsReeflex is the most efficient and cost-effective solution for the transportation of liquid in 20’
and 40’ refrigerated containers. It keeps liquids at the right temperature in a completely
confined environment throughout the transport and up to delivery.
• Larger volumes transportation: 12,000 to 26,000 litters
• Excellent quality preservation thanks to the temperature
control (-25°C to +30°C)
• Reliability, simplicity and speed, it takes approximately one
hour to load or unload liquid
• Hygienic and good for the environment: Reeflex prevents
contamination and has full recycling capabilities
19. CMA CGM develops AQUAVIVA, a new generation of containersAQUAVIVA is a new generation of containers which allows the safe
transport of live lobsters in their original water while maintaining their
natural habitat. The development of this global innovation relies on the
strong CMA CGM’s Reefer expertise and the unique INNOPURE®
technology developed by EMYG Environment & Aquaculture.
›Replicates lobsters’ natural living conditions
›Preserves the water’s oxygen level and quality
›Guarantees the water’s optimum temperature during transportation
›The slogan: LIVE SEAFOOD NOW TRAVELS ABOVE WATER
›The signature - AQUAVIVA: INNOVATION AND CARE FOR LIVE SEAFOOD
›Combine innovation, expertise, respect for the environment and
1 Used to obtain lower temperatures down to -35 ° C
2 To preserve some goods as ice cream or frozen fish
3 Possibility to do hot stuffing (can lower temp quicker)
4 To stuff certain goods as grapes directly on the Field
21. Main Reefer Traffics to Russia
22. Heat comes through the wallsThe Sun’s Radiant Heat.
In case of unplugging, the temperature increases
High Ambient Temperature
1 to 2 degree lost per day at 30 degree outside if frozen cargo .
Used to obtain ultra- low
temperatures down to -60 ° C
To preserve goods as sashimigrade frozen fish (mainly tuna),
but also sea urchins, some types of
Turn-time : 3 bookings / year, rates
$750/ ton with 20 tons minimum,
contributions at $5000/teu !!
• Live plants
• Potatoes in bags
25. How are Reefers monitored?How areProcedures
and Technologies for permanent monitoring
Reefer experts monitor the containers
at every stage of the journey to ensure
they are functioning correctly.
Communication between the container and the ship’s bridge.
Immediate alert in case of malfunction or incident.
• On entering and leaving the container yard
• When being loaded onto a train or truck
Electronic microprocessor and data-loggers :
• When parked in the port terminal
• During the voyage on board ship
To record all parameters even when the Reefer is unplugged :
Supply air temperature
Return air temperature
To guarantee that the “cold chain” is maintained.
Those going by road (rail or truck) are equipped with portable
generators called Gensets.
26. Download Data Logger
27. Electronic monitoring onboard
28. Gen set - Why do we use it ?GENSETS
Gen set - Why do we use it ?
To produce electrical power during
trip on road or rail
Gen Set is running with diesel same
The trucker is responsible to start
The container is plugged to the genset
29. Kinds of Gen-setsClip on system
31. CMA CGM presents TRAXENS, End to end visibility and supply chain operational excellenceThe Group presents TRAXENS, a solution allowing our customers to
direct their Supply Chain in real-time and to optimize it through an
TRAXENS is a permanent electronic high-tech device designed to
generate near real-time data and notifications about cargo’s
movement and condition at any given point in time, be it:
• Geographic position
• Status in the shipping process
• External and internal* temperature variation
• Humidity variation*
• Door opening