2. Key termsVitamin – organic molecule essential for
Avitaminosis – total deficiency of one or
Hypovitaminosis – deficiency of one or
Hypervitaminosis – excess amount of
intake of one or more vitamins.
3. VitaminsVitamins were first
discovered in 1890 when
the disease beriberi was
found to be due to a
lack of vitamin B
A small amount of
vitamins is ingested in
food and play important
roles in regulation of the
metabolism of the body.
The main source of
vitamins is plants
However, animal tissues,
especially liver, contain
a rich supply of vitamins
4. VitaminsOverheating of food,
therefore, may cause
destruction of vitamins
Functions of vitamins
--to give the body resistance
--to prevent against bleeding
and blood deficiency
--to assist in formation,
development and rigidity of
--to regulate growth,
--to provide a regular
program of nutrition
in 1912 in rice bran.
He proposed the complex be named "Vitamin" (vital
By the time it was shown that not all vitamins were
amines, the word was already ubiquitous.
6. Vitamin - definitionAn organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny
amounts by an organisms.
It cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an
organism, and must be obtained from the diet.
Vitamins have diverse biological function:
hormone-like functions as regulators of mineral metabolism
regulators of cell and tissue growth and differentiation
(some forms of vit. A)
antioxidants (vit. E, C)
enzyme cofactors (tightly bound to enzyme as a part of
prosthetic group, coenzymes)
7. Vitamin classificationLipid-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K)
hydrophobic compounds, absorbed efficiently with
transport in the blood in lipoproteins or attached to
specific binding proteins,
more likely to accumulate in the body,
more likely to lead to hypervitaminosis
8. Vitamin classificationWater-soluble vitamins - 8 B vitamins and vitamin C
Function: mainly as enzyme cofactors,
hydrophilic compounds dissolve easily in water,
not readily stored, excreted from the body,
their consistent daily intake is important.
Many types of water-soluble vitamins are synthesized
9. Metabolic functions of vitamin AVision
Embryonic development and reproduction
10. Sources of vitamin Acod liver oil
11. Vitamin D and imunityIt increases the activity of natural killer cells
Increases the phagocytic ability of macrophages .
Reduces the risk of virus diseases (colds, flu).
Reduces the risk of many cancers (colon, breast and
Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease → have a
positive impact on the composition of plasma lipids.
12. Sources of vitamin DIn addition to sunbathing:
various fish species (salmon,
sardines and mackerel, tuna,
catfish, eel), fish oil, cod liver
eggs, beef liver, mushrooms
13. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid )Vitamin C is the most famous vitamin.
sources: almost exclusively in foods from plant
sources (citrus fruits, broccoli, peppers, kiwi,
strawberries, potatoes, tomatoes), although
fresh milk and liver contain small amounts.
14. Major function in the bodyhelps form collagen
helps in growth and repair of body tissue and
a strong antioxidant
aids in absorption of iron
helps regulate the metabolism of cholesterol and
Бери бери ауруы
Сау тіс жиегі
жирорастворимый Майда еритін