1. English GrammarThe Beginning
other of the living languages may be put
the language (sounds, intonation, etc.)
Lexicology is a science which studies the word-stock of the
language, its building material (words, phrases, etc.)
You can have perfect pronunciation and the richest vocabulary imaginable, but you won't be able to
speak a language if you don't know how to make up sentences with the help of which we
communicate, that is if you don't know the grammar of the language.
Grammar is a science which studies the structure of the
language. The two parts of English Grammar are:
Morphology and Syntax.
Morphology deals with parts of speech. Syntax studies the
sentence, different types of sentences and their meanings.
communication. Language is also the most
basic and marvellously complex instrument of
The English language consists of three
constituent parts: the phonological system, the
lexical system, the grammatical system.
5. SYNTAXThe word «Syntax» comes from Old Greek, where it
meant «военный строй». In Old Greek grammar
schools the term was transferred to Grammar to
stress the importance of word order in the
The sentence is a unit of speech which expresses
a complete thought, and has a correct
grammatical form and intonation. Every sentence
has modality, which shows the speaker's attitude
according to the aim of communication
according to their structure.
sentences may be declarative, interrogative,
Declarative sentences express statements,
facts in the affirmative or in the negative form.
Interrogative sentences ask for some
Imperative sentences express commands,
requests and invitations
purpose of the utterance.
1. Ireland is often called the «Emerald Isle» because of
its lush green countryside. 2. What's the best way to
learn a foreign language? 3. Respect other people's
customs when you travel. 4. Example is the only way
of educating (Albert Einstein). 5. Get out of the car
right now! 6. Would you give him my message,
please? 7. You are forgetting yourself! 8. English is a
member of the Indo-European family of languages. 9.
Do you believe in UFO (Unidentified Flying Objects)?
10. Be careful driving while it is snowing! 11.
Curiosity is the beginning of knowledge. 12. What a
beautiful sunset it is! 13. What do you know about
marketing? 14. Watch out! 15. Finish your work,
please. 16. In this part of the country birds fly south
an imperative or an exclamatory sentence.
1. Аn interesting book (excl.). 2. My friend's
address (inter.). 3. Peter's library (decl.). 4. A
map of the United States (imper.). 5. A small
island (excl.). 6. Mountains of Great Britain
(decl.). 7. Shakespeare's birthplace (inter.). 8.
An exciting thriller (excl.). 9. A different example
(imper.). 10. The capital of the Republic of
Ireland (inter.). 11. An inexpensive way to travel
(decl.). 12. Astrange remark (excl.). 13. The
largest fresh-water lake in the world (inter.). 14.
A good time (imper.). 15. New ways of
1. A small child sees the world differently from an adult.
2. The world changes very fast. 3. She gets a lot of
faxes every day. 4. Our grammar lesson lasts two
hours. 5. Jack works at a new computer company. 6.
California has a lot of rain in winter. 7. A tree grows in
height as well as in diameter. 8. A disjunctive
question takes a comma before its tag (tail). 9.
Nancy likes to work in the library. 10. He translates a
lot of articles into English every day. 11. Each day
brings new events and meetings. 12. He understands
French better than he speaks it. 13. He has a
doctorate degree in linguistics. 14. Brad likes to cook
for his friends when he has time. 15. Our teacher
gives us a lot of homework.
Don't be so noisy!
1. Come over at five, please. 2. Call him in the
evening. 3. Give him this file. 4. Turn down the
TV, please. 5. Think about something else,
please. 6. Relax! 7. Show me around this place,
please. 8. Send him a fax tomorrow morning. 9.
Read this paragraph, please. 10. Look over
there! 11. Bring me some paper, please. 12.
Check the answering machine in the morning.
13. Warm up the tea, please. 14. Open the
window, please. 15. Wait for us outside, please.
16. Add some more salt to the soup.
A general question. It asks whether the statement is positive or
negative and requires an affirmative or a negative answer.
— Is it cold today? — Yes, it is.
— Do you like cold weather? — No, I don't.
A special question. It may refer to any word in the sentence and it
begins with an interrogative word (who? what? which? when?
When and where do you meet?
Why is she so cross with you?
A special question to the subject (what? who? which?) doesn't
require any auxiliary verb.
What makes you so sad ?
Who knows the answer?
Which of them helps you?
Is Dan in or out? Do you learn French or Spanish?
A disjunctive question (a tag question). It is a very
short question which follows the statement and
repeats its meaning. If the statement is
affirmative, the question is negative; if the
statement is negative, the question is affirmative.
You are happy, aren't you? You aren't happy, are you?
He never smokes, does he? She smokes, doesn't
1. They will be at home tonight. 2. The lecture
begins at 12 o'clock. 3. She can do it tomorrow.
4. The examination was difficult. 5. He has
returned to Moscow. 6. She has a big dog. 7. He
lives in that house. 8.1 am the best student in
the class. 9. There are twelve months in a year.
10. There were too many people at the party.
11. Nick likes to tell jokes. 12. He can fix
anything. 13. Customs are different in every
country. 14. Talk shows have become very
popular on our TV. 15. He won the first prize.
the following statements.
1. It is cold outside. 2. There is a VCR in his room.
3. Barbara does her shopping twice a week. 4.
There are three computers in the office. 5.
David comes home late on Mondays. 6. He is
fluent in English and German. 7. This office gets
a lot of faxes every day. 8. There is tea and
coffee on the table. 9. He needs a sleeping-bag
for the trip. 10. Allan can solve this problem.
11. Jennie has a great new backpack. 12. My
brother likes vanilla ice-cream. 13. She has
black hair and blue eyes. 14. There are several
unopened letters on her desk. 15. Bison is
another name for buffalo.
17. II. According to their structure sentences may be divided into simple, compound, and complex.II. ACCORDING TO THEIR STRUCTURE
SENTENCES MAY BE DIVIDED INTO SIMPLE,
COMPOUND, AND COMPLEX.
A simple sentence can be extended or
unextended. A sentence, which consists only of
a subject and a predicate is called unextended.
Life is wonderful. Time is short.
They met. We had a talk.
A sentence which has some secondary parts is
Last night we went for a walk in the centre of
coordinated simple sentences.
The night was warm, and we walked to the sea.
It was late, and I was tired.
A complex sentence consists of a principal
(independent) clause and of one or more
subordinate (dependent) clauses.
Nobody knows when she'll come back.
How I wish it were true and I hadn't imagined it all.
Although it was hard work, I enjoyed the job.
1. Great Britain is a small island, but it is rich in minerals. 2.
What an interesting book I bought yesterday! 3. I know that
he is in London now. 4. Ask her where he is now. 5. Alicia,
Joy, and David came in. 6. Read about the weather and then
decide on your vacation. 7. Don't forget! 8. Can you explain
the term «brainstorming» to us? 9. My boss gets angry if he is
interrupted. 10. I can't explain what it means. 11. Leave me
and my friend alone, or I shall call the police. 12. Mike
smiled at his colleague, but Steve frowned at him. 13. Is
there any hope? 14. If you listen attentively, the meaning will
not escape you. 15. To know everything is to know nothing.
pleasant personality she has!
Model: These are expensive towels. What expensive
towels these are!
1. He has made a stupid remark. 2. She has long
eyelashes. 3. The store is crowded today. 4. She
wears old-fashioned clothes. 5. The story sounds
unbelievable. 6. The noise was frightening. 7. He has
told us an amusing story. 8. The costume looks
elegant. 9. He has made a terrible mistake. 10. He is
an extraordinary man. 11.The lesson is difficult. 12.
Mr. Grayson is a fine speaker. 13. I see a bright star
in the sky. 14. The pie is delicious. 15. He has done a
21. The main parts of the sentenceTHE MAIN PARTS OF THE SENTENCE
A sentence may have main and secondary members. The main
members of the sentence are: the Subject and the Predicate.
The Subject of the sentence is the topic being discussed. The Subject
may be expressed by personal pronouns, nouns, indefinite pronouns,
infinitives, gerunds, substantivised parts of speech.
We all hope for the best.
A doctor should be competent.
Something is wrong.
To know you is a privilege.
Travelling broadens your mind.
The unknown is always interesting.
about the subject.
According to its meaning the predicate may be
either verbal or nominal.
qualities, characteristics (it cannot denote an
between the main and the secondary parts. Say what they
are expressed by.
1. She is a first-year student. 2. He is playing outside. 3.1 shall
be very glad to see you at my place. 4. My friend's sister is an
engineer. 5.He didn't tell us anything about it. 6. She is a
very pretty child. 7. There are a lot of interesting stories in
this book. 8. We knew nothing about it. 9. She had a son and
a daughter. 10. You must go there today. 11. AI and Jack
found the missing child. 12. Language students often read,
write, and listen to new words. 13. Friday is my birthday. 14.
Last year a library, a museum, and a movie theatre were
built in our district. 15. The boat suddenly jumped, increased
its speed and passed the other racers.
1. Oxford is one of the oldest towns in England. 2. She
went out of the room. 3. To live long is the wish of all
men. 4. Reading is her favourite occupation. 5. Two is a
company and three is a crowd. 6. «On» is a preposition.
7. It was difficult to do it. 8. There is a lamp on the table.
9. A stranger came up to their table. 10. None of the
chairs look comfortable. 11. Is London hot in summer?
12. To be or not to be — this is the question. 13. Who
could live without water? 14. Not everybody is so lucky.
15. To read is to be transported to another world.
predicates. Say what they are expressed by.
1. He went home after the lecture. 2. His voice sounded
cheerful. 3. «Thank you, I am feeling much better now».
4. «The dress is rather expensive», she remarked. 5. The
night was dark and a cold wind was blowing. 6. The
roses smell sweet. 7. He didn't know what to say and
remained silent. 8. They are colleagues. 9. He took no
interest in his story. 10. He has received a letter from his
father. 11. He must post the letter at once. 12. We had a
snack at the Russian bistro. 13. This file is mine. 14.
The room was in disorder. 15. The child felt sleepy.
1. Он довольно веселый человек (cheerful, cheerfully). 2. Это был
веселый спектакль (cheerful, cheerfully). 3. Это было смелое решение
(brave, bravely). 4. Он действовал смело и решительно (brave, bravely).
5. Он робко посматривал на девушку, сидящую напротив него (timid,
timidly). 6. Он очень умно пишет (clever, cleverly). 7. Он умный
писатель (clever, cleverly). 8. Билл с гордостью рассказывал об
успехах сына (proud, proudly). 9. Диана очень гордилась успехом
своей команды (proud, proudly). 10. Дорога была хорошая, и поездка
была приятной (good, well). 11. По радио звучала хорошая мелодия
(good, well). 12. Ручка хорошо пишет (good, well). 13. Это хорошая
ручка (good, well). 14. Пирог выглядит отлично (good, well). И на вкус
он тоже хорош (good, well). 15. Он подозрительно посмотрел на
сторублевую банкноту (suspicious, suspiciously). Банкнота
действительно выглядела подозрительно (suspicious, suspiciously). 16.
Запах газа был очевиден (distinct, distinctly). Мы его явно ощущали
(distinct, distinctly). 17. Этот цвет выглядит совсем по-другому при
свете дня (different, differently). 18. Он сделал это совсем по-другому
в этот раз (different, differently). 19. Его предложение звучит (отдает)
нечестно(стью) (dishonest, dishonestly). 20. Он поступил нечестно