Questions relating to issues in this session?
Teachers typically ask between 300-400 questions per day
EFL: Types of questions
Language teacher questions
Error Correction
Returning to our question…
Questions relating to issues in this session
Tiddler ‘story’
Key class phases in story activity
Bike stories: Curious George and other bikes
Returning to our question
Questions related to issues in the session
What’s in a task?
Making finger/potato/hand puppets
Making a traditional hat
Key elements in display
Returning to our earlier questions
Questions related to this session
Collaborative teaching
Cross-curricular primary tasks
Simple Maths/Science focuses within the English Curriculum
Returning to our question
Category: pedagogypedagogy

Features of primary language classroom management


Day 8
Features of primary language classroom


Session 1: Types of language classroom
question and correction techniques

3. Questions relating to issues in this session?

Why are questions crucial in all learning ? What specific
extra purpose do they serve in language classrooms?
How can we categorise types of classroom question?
What are crucial features in differentiating questions?
How can Ts vary question interaction patterns?
How and when do teachers correct answers?

4. Teachers typically ask between 300-400 questions per day

Questioning is crucial in:
• managing the class
• engaging students with content
• encouraging participation
• increasing understanding.
• promoting formative assessment.
The quantity of questions asked needs to be considered in
relation to:
• general time constraints
• keep teacher talking time to a minimum
• their effectiveness in maximising learner contributions.

5. EFL: Types of questions


6. Language teacher questions

convergent question
• to move lesson stages/activities along
hypothetical question
• to elicit a range of learner language
probing question
• to check learners have understood
procedural question
• to explore learner answers further
display question
• to focus on language meaning and forms
divergent question
• to promote learner speculation
concept checking question • to elicit a simple correct answer
referential question
• to elicit something the teacher does not
know answer to.


Thinking time:
Consciously waiting for a
learner or class to think
through an answer (before
you break the silence) e.g.
No hands questioning:
Using the ‘no hands up’ rule
Provide time between setting the
question and requiring an answer.
Sometimes alerting learners to the
approach and the time available to
develop an answer.
Ref. AfL publication Working Inside the Black
Basketball questioning:
Move questions and
discussions between
Learners aware that those required
to give an answer, will be selected
by the teacher. Teachers alert them
to this as questions are asked.
Linked to ‘thinking time’.
Teacher establishes movement of
ideas and responses around the
class. Builds on other learners’
ideas and comments. Accepts
‘half-formed’ ideas. NB not ‘pingpong’
Conscripts and volunteers: Teacher selects answers from
Using a planned mix of
those who volunteer an answer
‘conscripts’ and ‘volunteers’
and an equal amount of those who
do not.
Gains and benefits


Deploying specific targeted
Listen in to group discussions and
target specific questions to groups
and individuals.
Modeling simple exploratory
questions to gather
Teacher models the use of Who,
What, Where, When and Why to
set out a simple information
gathering response based on the
information provided.
Signal questions:
Providing signals to learners about
the kind of answer that would best
fit the question being asked.
Teacher responds to learners
attempt to answer, by signaling and
guiding the answers.
Seek a partial answer:
In the context of asking difficult
whole class questions, deliberately
ask a learner who will provide only
a partly formed answer, to promote
collective engagement.
Gains and benefits


Phone a friend:
Removes stress to enable
those who cannot answer to
Those who cannot answer are
allowed to nominate a fellow learner
to suggest an answer on their
behalf, but they still have to provide
their own answer, perhaps building
on this.
A learner is placed in the ‘hot-seat’
to take several questions from the
class and teacher.
Mantle of the expert:
A learner wears the cloak of the
expert to answer questions from the
Questions are shared/displayed
before being asked, or the start of
the lesson.
Previewing questions in
Pair rehearsal:
of an answer or a question
Pairs of learners are able to discuss
and agree responses to questions
Gains and benefits

10. Error Correction

Correction symbols
Some teachers use prompts for correction while speaking.
Some well-known examples are:
Make a ‘T’ with fingers to illustrate missing ‘the’.
Show a small word missing by holding thumb and forefinger close together.
Cross hands over to show wrong word order.
… can you add to this list.

11. Returning to our question…

How can we categorise types of classroom question?
Give a concrete example to another teacher of the different
types of language classroom question we have seen this


Session 2: Using story input

13. Questions relating to issues in this session

Why do young learners find stories so engaging?
How can features of stories be exploited pre-,while- and
How can Ts modify language when storytelling?
What’s the impact of accompanying story listening with

14. Tiddler ‘story’

[W] Listening to an animal story with illustrations e.g.
‘Tiddler’. Teacher reads the story modified to class
language level.
[I] Listening to instructions for drawing, making and
decorating different fish.
[P] Writing captions (bubbles) of things learners
remember from the story or fish might say.

15. Key class phases in story activity

• pre-teaching/eliciting vocabulary
• introducing characters
• story-telling setting: mat, props, hats, puppets, signs, etc.
• images, animation, reinforcing language
• listening and reading along
• audience participation/pantomime
• character empathy/voice consolidation
• consolidating language
• drama, craft, display

16. Bike stories: Curious George and other bikes

[W] Learners turn illustrations of a bike story ‘My new bike’ and
suggest language for each picture.
[D] Teacher introduces some key words from the story: curious
surprise animal show newspaper
[W] Whole class watches animation ‘Curious George rides his bike’ and
listen to teacher tell story.
[P] Learners work in pairs and make up and write captions for different
sequences in the story.
[W] Teacher tells the story with animation again and learners shout out
captions i.e. what ‘Curious George’ says/is thinking.
[W] Learners write out a selection of captions for a class story display.

17. Returning to our question

How can Ts modify language when storytelling?
Discuss with another delegate features that made the stories
we heard accessible to learners.


Session 3: Craft activities and display

19. Questions related to issues in the session

What are the different learning style/mode preferences
typically exhibited by learners?
How can teachers effectively address these in activities?
What type of language does performing craft activities
particularly involve.
What purposes can organised classroom display serve?


Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Learning styles are simply different preferences in
the ways of learning.
If teachers develop their teaching styles and provide
a variety of tasks in these different styles, learning
will become more effective and efficient.


Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Audio learners like teachers that:
• use role plays as part of their teaching
• encourage classroom discussions
• encourage learners to work in groups
• give time for learners to ask questions
• include reading passages aloud in their teaching
• makes learners recall facts by reciting things – rhymes,
mnemonics, etc.
• do not need absolute silence in the classroom.


Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Visual learners like teachers that:
• use pictures and videos
• draw on the board
• ask learners to visualise a scene, or successful outcome
• gives learners time to sketch out ideas or to take notes
• encourages use of coloured pens
• likes to have a colourful classroom.


Audio, visual and kinaesthetic learners
Kinaesthetic learners like teachers that:
• encourage good note-taking (when watching videos,
listening to explanations or going through examples)
• use activities that include moving around the classroom
• use sticky-notes and flash cards for noting and sorting
• encourage learning by doing, not just sitting.

24. What’s in a task?

Look at the activities. Sort them according to which
ones would appeal more to:
• visual learners
• auditory learners
• kinaesthetic learners

25. Making finger/potato/hand puppets

a simple hand [bag] puppet

26. Making a traditional hat

27. Display

Display as stimulus - designed to arouse interest in a
particular concept or theme; cross-curricular links,
develop aesthetic sense
Display as information - designed to inform; provide
reinforcement; act as resource, prompt
Display as celebration - designed to present children's
work to a wider audience. validate work, sense of
community, achievement and respect

28. Key elements in display

• imagination:
think big and out of the box
• effort:
think planning and resourcing
• structure:
think background, focus, visibility
• organisation:
think timing and process
Refresh, update and move on.


Primary Display Internet inspiration
Find ‘display’ images from real classrooms that
might be used to inspire teachers related to
these actual displays in the curriculum
Spring in Kazakhstan
Underwater ocean scene
Puppet/mobile displays
Classroom rules/signs display

30. Returning to our earlier questions

What was the main motivational ‘purpose’ behind each
display found on the internet ?
What type of language did our craft activities typically


Session 4: Cross-curricular learning

32. Questions related to this session

Why use content/activities from other subjects ?
Can curricular concepts be taught in English?
What are some ways in which we can teach collaboratively?
What additional steps are involved in cross-curricular

33. Collaborative teaching


[P] Listening to instructions for cutting out, vehicle outlines,
making body of vehicle and showing how many people are inside.
[P] Visiting teacher’s moving parts shop and requesting the things
needed to make rest of vehicle.
[P] Writing out labels in the form of flags for to put on learner
vehicles, e.g. Tom and Tina’s tractor.
[W] Saying where your vehicle can get to (vehicles rolled down a
gentle slope and along a flat surface). Rest of class asked: Can

35. Cross-curricular primary tasks

Art and Design
Listening, measuring and
completing a graph about how
long learner’s step is.
[I] Watching a demonstration
and following instructions on how
to wrap present. Silent video
presentation which teacher
pauses and prompts with
Activity framework, worksheet
and graph template :
[I] [f] Listening to instructions to
make decorations to stick on
wrapped presents e.g. Draw a
star. Colour the star purple. Now
give instructions for display.

36. Simple Maths/Science focuses within the English Curriculum

Halving and doubling bingo
Sink or swim
Making representations from shapes

37. Returning to our question

Why use content/activities from other subjects ?
Make a list of reasons with another teacher.
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