structure of a lesson
Aims of today’s session:
Finish these metaphors for lessons:
5-Step Lesson Structure
Opening procedures may include…
Types of Introductory Activities
Types of Introductory Activities
Types of Introductory Activities
Types of Introductory Activities
Type of introductory activity?
Three teachers’ lesson starts
Effective lesson starts
Inductive teaching
Advantages of inductive teaching
Any disadvantages?
Deductive teaching
Advantages of deductive teaching
Any disadvantages?
Types of lessons
Thank you!
Categories: englishenglish pedagogypedagogy

Structure of a lesson

1. structure of a lesson

Anna N. Kondakova

2. Aims of today’s session:

Look at different lesson components
Share ideas to start lessons effectively
Discuss inductive and deductive teaching
Explain rationales behind different types of
practice activities
• Self-study: Look at how different types of
lessons are organized

3. Finish these metaphors for lessons:

A good lesson is like a film because ...
A good lesson is like a football match
because ...
A good lesson is like a meal because ...
A good lesson is like a symphony because


• Every effective lesson plan should build toward
the achievement of the objective and connect
to long-term instructional goals
• “I do, we do, you do” approach
• Five Step Lesson Plan

5. 5-Step Lesson Structure


Okay class, open
your books to page
321 and begin
reading the text.
When you finish, do
tasks 3 through 11.
Any questions?

7. Opening procedures may include…

• Signaling attention
• Describe the goals of the lesson
• Inform students about the
knowledge and skills they will
• Explain how this information relates
to previous class, life outside class,
and bigger world
• Explain what students are
expected to do in class, including
rules and teacher expectations
• Describe the relationship of the
lesson with the forthcoming test or
• Provides an opportunity to review
the previous lesson
• Helps assess knowledge and skills
relevant to the current lesson
• …

8. Types of Introductory Activities


9. Types of Introductory Activities

• Used to introduce a topic,
generate interest
• Focus student’s mind on the
• Can be used to check and
pre-teach some necessary
language for the following
• Always connected to the main
focus of the lesson

10. Types of Introductory Activities

(or warmups)
•Give class more energy at
the start of a lesson
•Typically ‘stand alone’
activities and are outside
the main flow of the lesson
•Group-building rather then

11. Types of Introductory Activities

• Present an opportunity for
students to get to know
each other
• Encourage good rapport
• Used at the start of a
course to help a new class
feel more comfortable
working together

12. Type of introductory activity?

1. Teacher gets each student to write three
statements about themselves. Two statements are
true, while one is false. Each student reads their
three statements to the class and the rest of the
class guess which statement isn’t true.
2. Teacher commands drills in a funny way (e.g.
Stand up. Sit down. Hold up your right hand. Show
me your pen….)


3. Teacher puts a quote on the wall. The quote
reads: “All you need is love. But a little chocolate
now and then “doesn't hurt.” Charles M. Schulz”. T
asks the students how they feel about the quote
(Do you agree or disagree with this statement?)
4. Teacher writes a long word on the board (e.g.
CONSTITUTION) and asks students to provide
words using the letters of the word on the board.


5. Each student divides the sheet into four
squares. For each square, each person will
describe themselves in the form of drawings. They
could be asked to draw “favorite hobbies,”
“favorite place on earth for vacation,” “if you
were an animal, which one would you be?” and
“what are the most important things in your life?”
When everyone is finished drawing, T gathers
them together to share the drawings as a group.


6. The learners are going to read a text about computers in
the lesson. The teacher asks them to change their seating
and sit down in an order based on how much they use a
computer. This requires them to move around and talk to
each other.
7. Teacher gives out several strips with sentence parts from a
text. Students have to put the sentences in the correct order
individually, in pairs or small groups. After students assemble
the scrambled sentences in order and there is a class
consensus on the correct order, T ask students what they think
the reading will be about.


8. Teacher gives each learner a sheet with a series
of 'Find someone who…' statements, e.g. 'Find
someone who has a cat'. Learners circulate around
the class and complete the statements with names.
9. Teacher puts a picture of a family on the board.
She begins by stating, “What do you see,” then asks
a more specific question, such as “What problems
do you see in this picture?” “Why is this boy sad?”

17. Three teachers’ lesson starts

• What strategies of lesson opening do they use?
• What works well?
• What would you do differently?

18. Effective lesson starts

• Lesson opening should be relevant to the topic you are
• Hook the students attention at once
• Consider quiet or energizing lesson starts depending on
the energy in the group
• Activate Ss experience and previous knowledge
• Think carefully about the type of lesson start and timing
• Use pictorial prompts, realia, anecdotes, personal stories
with care!

19. Instruction


20. Inductive teaching

SS are exposed to new
language through a
set of examples
SS have to discover
language or rule
SS apply rules in a
series of activities
•T gives SS a text to read and
respond to.
•T asks SS to identify all the
conjunctions in the text
•SS produce their own examples
to demonstrate the use of

21. Advantages of inductive teaching

• It is student-centered
• It is authentic
• It stimulates learner autonomy
• The action of discovery helps learners retain more
• It fosters communication in class
• It responds better to SS needs and encourages use of
various learning strategies and styles

22. Any disadvantages?

• Can require more class-time
• SS may need to be introduced into such
kind of teaching
• May not be appropriate for all SS and
especially administration

23. Deductive teaching

T explicitly teaches
some rules
•T explains the Present Perfect
tense, how it works, and how it
is made
T provides
opportunities for
controlled practice
•SS practice the language in a
matching and gap-fill activity
SS have freer
•SS play a game in which one is
miming and action, and others
have to guess

24. Advantages of deductive teaching

• It can meet student expectations
• It is more ‘teacher-friendly’ (T controls the
• A more efficient use of time
• Complies with many coursebooks and

25. Any disadvantages?

• It is teacher-centered
• It does not provide room for learner
• It can be boring

26. Video

• Watch two teachers presenting instruction
to their learners.
• Say which is an example of inductive and
deductive teaching.
• Watch Teacher 3 – what kind of approach
is used?

27. Types of lessons

Reading skills lessons
Listening skills lessons
Writing skills lessons
Speaking skills lessons
Grammar lessons


Making reading communicative
A framework for planning a listening skills lesson at
Planning a writing lesson


Planning a grammar lesson
Improving Adult English Language Learners'
Speaking Skills
Stages of a speaking lesson

30. Thank you!

English     Русский Rules