1. Lesson planning• WHAT IS A LESSON?
• PREPARATION FOR A LESSON
• LEARNING PROCESS
• LESSON PLAN STRUCTURE
2. What does a lesson involve?2
A lesson is a type of organized social
Lessons may vary in topic, time, place,
atmosphere, methodology and materials
Lessons mainly concern with learning
Involve participation (T and Sts)
Limited and pre-scheduled
3. Metaphors for lesson3
A television show
Climbing a mountain
Eating a meal
A football game
Consulting a doctor
4. A lesson is …4
or series of
5. A lesson is also…5
A series of
6. Teacher roles6
7. Components of a lesson7
8. Lesson preparation8
How long before a specific lesson do you prepare it?
Do you write down lesson notes to guide you? Or do
you rely on the lesson format provided by another
teacher, or the coursebook?
Are your notes brief (single page or less) or detailed
(over one page)?
What do they consist of?
Do you note down your objectives?
How do you use your notes during the lesson?
What do you do with your lesson notes after the lesson?
9. Why lesson planning?9
Preparation for a lesson is visualization of what may
happen in class
Prediction, anticipation of challenges and successes,
sequencing, organizing and simplifying
Written plan is evidence of your thinking and an
instrument of accountability
It guides you through the lesson and a series of
Ideally, another teacher can pick up your plan and do
a great lesson
10. General areas to think about10
The teaching points
The tasks and teaching procedures
Materials and aids
11. The learning process11
• The learner does not know anything about the
• The learner hears or reads examples of items
(maybe a number of times), but does not
particularly notice it.
• The learner begins to realize that there is an item
which they do not fully understand.
12. The learning process (continued)12
• The learner starts to look more closely at the item
and tries to work out the formation rules and the
• The learner tries to use the item in his/her speech
or writing, maybe hesitantly, probably with many
• The learner integrates the item fully into his/her
own language and uses it (without thinking),
relatively easily with minor errors.
13. Types of Exposure13
In this diagram,
exposure is divided into
restricted and authentic.
What can this involve?
Reading magazines, books,
Listening to radio or tapes
Watching films or video
Reading pieces of language
on notices, posters around
language in class
Teacher saying sentences
that exemplify the target
Students read or listen to
Students read examples of
specific language use in
grammar or vocabulary
15. Types of output15
Output is also divided
into restricted and
What does it mean?
‘Repeat what I say’
Writing a postcard
Chatting in class
17. Present-practice model17
• Learners get to see or hear examples of
language being used
• Explanation / guided discovery / selfdirected clarification
• Learners try using the language for
18. Alternatives to present-practice18
Restricted output – teacher explanation –
Authentic exposure – activities to promote
noticing – clarification: guided discovery restricted output?
Activities that promote ‘preparation’ –