Infinitive. The negative infinitive. The present infinitive
1. The theme of the lesson: Infinitive
2. The infinitive is the base form of a verb.
3. VERB+TO+INFINITIVE To buy – сатып алу, to sell – сату.VERB+TO+INFINITIVE
To buy – сатып алу, to sell – сату.
4. The negative infinitive is formed by putting not in front of any form of the infinitive. EXAMPLES I decided not to go toThe negative infinitive is formed by putting not in front of any
form of the infinitive.
I decided not to go to London.
He asked me not to be late.
I'd like you not to sing so loudly.
I'd rather not eat meat.
I might not come.
5. The present infinitive has two forms: the to-infinitive = to + base the zero infinitive = baseThe present infinitive has two forms:
the to-infinitive = to + base
the zero infinitive = base
6. 1.We use the infinitive after adjectives: I am surprised to see you here. 2.We use the infinitive after adjectives with FOR: Itis dangerous for you.
3. We use the infinitive after nouns:
It is time to go.
The to-infinitive is used in many sentence constructions, often
expressing the purpose of something or someone's opinion about
something. The to-infinitive is used following a large collection of
different verbs as well.
1. THE TO-INFINITIVE TO INDICATE THE PURPOSE OR
INTENTION OF AN ACTION
In this case to has the same meaning as in order to or so as to.
•She came to collect her pay cheque.
•The three bears went to find firewood.
•I am calling to ask you about dad.
•You sister has gone to finish her homework.
I hope to see you next week.
He claimed to be an expert.
I managed to reach the top of the hill.
Would you care to swim?
The to-infinitive is used frequently with the
adverbs too and enough to express the reasoning behind our
satisfaction or insatisfaction.
•There's too much sugar to put in this bowl.
•I had too many books to carry.
•This soup is too hot to eat.
•She was too tired to work.
•He arrived too late to see the actors.
•I've had enough food to eat.
THE ZERO INFINITIVE AFTER AUXILIARIES
•She can't speak to you.
•He should give her some money.
•Shall I talk to him?
•Would you like a cup of coffee?
•I might stay another night in the hotel.
•They must leave before 10.00 a.m.
THE ZERO INFINITIVE AFTER VERBS OF PERCEPTION
With verbs of perception, the pattern is verb + object + zero infinitive.
•He saw her fall from the cliff.
•We heard them close the door.
•They saw us walk toward the lake.
THE ZERO INFINITIVE WITH "WHY"
The question word why is followed by the zero infinitive when making suggestions.
•Why wait until tomorrow?
•Why not ask him now?
•Why leave before the end of the game?
•Why walk when we can go in the car?
•Why not buy a new bed?
Her parents let her stay out late.
Let's go to the cinema tonight.
You made me come with you.
Don't make me study that boring grammar book!
THE ZERO INFINITIVE AFTER THE EXPRESSION 'HAD BETTER'
We had better take some warm clothing.
She had better ask him not to come.
We had better reserve a room in the hotel.
You'd better give me your address.
They had better work harder on their homework.
12. 1.We use the infinitive after adjectives: I am surprised to see you here. 2.We use the infinitive after adjectives with FOR: Itis dangerous for you.
3. We use the infinitive after nouns:
It is time to go.
Чему я рад?
I am glad to speak to you.
Рад поговорить с вами. (Всегда
радуюсь, когда говорю с вами).
I am glad to be speaking to you.
Рад, что сейчас разговариваю с
I am glad to have spoken to you.
Рад, что поговорил с вами.
I am glad to have been speaking to
Рад, что уже давно (все это время)
разговариваю с вами.
I am (always) glad to be told the news. Всегда рад, когда мне рассказывают
I am glad to have been told the news.
Рад, что мне рассказали новости.
14. Exercise 1. Put “to” before the infinitive: 1.He can …. speak German very well. 2. I am very glad …. see you. 3. She asked meExercise 1.
Put “to” before the infinitive:
1.He can …. speak German very well. 2. I am very glad …. see
you. 3. She asked me …. ring him up and tell him about it. 4.
This work must …. be done at once. 5. I am not sure that this
work can …. be done in such a short time. 6. My son asked me
…. let him …. go to the theatre. 7. Let me …. help you with
your work. 8. I don’t know what …. tell him. 9. We have come
…. ask you about it. 10. I made him …. read this story. 11. I saw
her …. leave the room. 12. I intend …. ring him up and …. Ask
him about it. 13. You must …. make them …. Learn this rule. 14.
We heard her …. come downstairs.
15. Exercise 2. Put “to” before the infinitive where it is necessary: 1. I like … play the guitar. 2. My brother can … speakExercise 2.
Put “to” before the infinitive where it is necessary:
1. I like … play the guitar. 2. My brother can … speak French. 3. We had
… put on our overcoats because it was cold. 4. They wanted … cross the
river. 5. It is high time for you … go to bed. 6. May I … use your
telephone? 7. They heard the girl … cry out with joy. 8. I would rather …
stay at home today. 9. He did not want … play in the yard any more. 10.
Would you like … go to England? 11. You look tired. You had better …
go home. 12. I wanted … speak to Nick, but could not … find his
telephone number. 13. It is time … get up. 14. Let me … help you with
your homework? 15. I was planning … do a lot of things yesterday. 16.
I’d like … speak to you. 17. I think I shall be able … solve this problem.
18. What makes you … think you are right? 19. I shall do all I can … help
you. 20. I like … dance. 21. I’d like … dance. 22. She made me … repeat
my words several times. 23. I saw him … enter the room. 24. She did not
let her mother … go away.