. Epistemology in history-philosophical discourse
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
Nicola Machiavelli (1469-1527)
Perception problem:
mikolaj Kopernik (1473-1543) (Nicolaus Copernicus)
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Key word:
Thank you!
Category: philosophyphilosophy

Epistemology in history-philosophical discourse

1. . Epistemology in history-philosophical discourse

. Epistemology in
by Spitsa

2. Martin Luther (1483-1546)

“salvation is not earned by good
deeds but received only as a free
gift of God's grace through faith
in Jesus Christ as redeemer from
“Bible is the only source of
divinely revealed knowledge”
Father of
Reformation &

3. Renaissance:

• Revival of Greek and Roman
• Intense interest in the visible
world and in knowledge derived
from concrete sensory experience;
• Experience and reason became
the sole standards of truth.

4. Nicola Machiavelli (1469-1527)

• “Il principe” (“The Prince”)
• “The end justifies the
• Ruler are not bound by
traditional ethical norms
• A Prince should be
concerned only by rules that
would lead to success and
political actions

5. Science

6. Perception problem:

Middle Ages
• Geocentric system (Earth –
center of Universe)
• God s primary, nature –
• God is the source of
truthful knowledge, nature is
sinful and untruthful
• Heliocentric system (Sun is
the center of Solar system)
• God = Nature (pantheism )
• Only God can be percept by
the way of praying and
reading Holy texts
• Truth can be discover both
ways – from perception of
God & from perception of
• Nature must be percept by
experiments and sensual

7. mikolaj Kopernik (1473-1543) (Nicolaus Copernicus)

jurist with a doctorate in law, physician,
classics scholar, translator, artist, Catholic
cleric, governor, diplomat and economist.
• Heliocentric model of the solar system
• His work stimulated further scientific
investigations, becoming a landmark in the
history of science that is often referred to as
the Copernican Revolution.

8. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

If science has a beginning date, it
must be 1632 when the Italian
astronomer and physicist Galileo
Galilei, published his book:
“Dialogue on the Two Systems of
the World”.
All the previous work, all the
observations, theory, and fighting
against dogmatic concepts were
brought together by Galileo.


• Emphasized the importance of
applying mathematics to the
formulation of scientific laws;
• The science of mechanics
(physics) was created and
applied principles of geometry
to the motions of bodies;
• Invented first astronomical
quality telescope;

10. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

• English physicist,
mathematician, astronomer,
natural philosopher, alchemist
and theologian
• has been considered by many
to be the greatest and most
influential scientist who ever


• Philosophia Naturalis Principia
Mathematica (1687)
- the foundations for most of classical mechanics.
• described universal
gravitation and
the three laws of motion, which
dominated the scientific view of the physical
universe for the next three centuries


• “empirio”- Lat.
• The one source of knowledge is
experience, when all
surrounding world influences
our senses (sensualism)
• “ratio” – Lat. Mind
• Real knowledge possible only
from reason (mind), not from
• Existing of’ “inborn ideas”,
from which logically all
knowledge can be taken out.
Francis Bacon
Thomas Hobbes
John Locke
George Berkley
David Hume
• Rene Des Cartes
• Baruch B. Spinoza
• Wilhelm Leibniz

13. Key word:

• Cognition –
totality of processes & methods of
discovering knowledge about
phenomena & regularities (rules) of
objective world

14. Thank you!

by Natalya Spitsa
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