Types and functions of Lexico-Syntactical Stylistic Devices Similes, Litotes
1. Types and functions of Lexico-Syntactical Stylistic Devices: Similes, Litotes.Types and functions of LexicoSyntactical Stylistic Devices:
2. What is a Simile?A simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison,
showing similarities between two different things. Unlike a
metaphor, a simile draws resemblance with the help of the
words “like” or “as.” Therefore, it is a direct comparison.
3. Common Examples of Simile• John is as slow as a snail.
• Our soldiers are as brave as lions.
• Her cheeks are red like a rose.
• He is as funny as a monkey.
4. Modern Examples of SimilesAn example of this includes a line from
Rihanna’s song, “Diamonds:”
“You and I, you and I,
We’re like diamonds in the sky”
Here is an example of a simile being used
in a popular American newspaper.
Happy as a Clam
This is a popular simile used in writing,
and it describes someone who is extremely
5. The Function of Similesmaking writing more
making writing more
expression of comparison
giving greater significance
to the text
Similes add layered
meaning and interest to
by using 'like' (A is like B.).
Other possibilities are for example:
A is (not) like B
A is more/less than B
A is as … as B
A is similar to B
A is …, so is B
A does …, so does B
7. Fit these adjectives into the sentences belowFast flat slippery pale sharp wise
black blind thin colourful light noisy
1. Without his glasses, he's as ____________ as a bat.
2.That's a pretty dress! It's as ___________ as a rainbow.
3. Be quiet. You are as ______________ as a herd of elephants.
4. Are you feeling sick? You are as __________ as a ghost.
5. Her hands are dirty. They are as __________ as
6. She's quick. She's as _______________ as lightning.
8. Fast flat slippery pale sharp wise black blind thin colourful light noisy7. After he squashed it, it was as ____________ as a pancake.
8. I can't grab it. It's as ____________ as an eel.
9. She is so skinny. She's as ____________ as a toothpick.
10. Don't touch that broken glass. It's as _______
11. It doesn't weigh much. It’s as _________ as
12. He's really smart. He's as___________ as an owl.
as a razor.
2.That's a pretty dress! It's as colourful as a rainbow.
3. Be quiet. You are as noisy as a herd of elephants.
4. Are you feeling sick? You are as pale as a ghost.
5. Her hands are dirty. They are as dark as night.
6. She's quick. She's as fast as lightning.
7. After he squashed it, it was as flat as a pancake.
8. I can't grab it. It's as slippery as an eel.
9. She is so skinny. She's as thin as a toothpick.
10. Don't touch that broken glass. It's as sharp as a razor.
11. It doesn't weigh much. It’s as light as a feather.
12. He's really smart. He's as wise as an owl.
11. Definition of LitotesLitotes is a literary term for a figure of speech that uses negative terms to
express a positive statement.
12. Litotes vs. Understatement and Double NegativeUnderstatement is a figure of speech
that makes something seem less
significant or less severe than it
A double negative is an expression that
uses two negative terms to express a
Examples of Double Negatives:
Examples of Understatement:
I don’t have no time for that.
It’s chilly out here. (When It is actually
Intended meaning: I don’t have any
time for that.
I’m a little tired. (I’m exhausted.)
That won’t do you no good.
Intended meaning: That won’t do you
Litotes vs. Understatement and Double Negative
13. Common Litotes ExamplesThey do not seem the happiest couple around.
The ice cream was not too bad.
New York is not an ordinary city.
Your comments on politics are not useless.
You are not as young as you used to be.
I cannot disagree with your point of view.
William Shakespeare was not a bad playwright at
He is not the cleverest person I have ever met.
She is not unlike her mother.
Ken Adams is not an ordinary man
A million dollars is no small amount.
You are not doing badly at all.
Your apartment is not unclean.
14. Function of LitotesLitotes uses ironic understatement in order to
emphasize an idea or situation.
J.R. Bergmann, in his book Talk at Work:
Interaction in Institutional Settings, talks about
litotes in the following words:
“I want to claim that the rhetorical figure litotes
is one of those methods which are used to talk
about an object in a discreet way. It clearly
locates an object for the recipient, but it avoids
naming it directly.”
15. The Purpose of LitotesLitotes is often used in rhetoric.
Litotes are a way to actually
emphasize the positive by using a
double negative. Litotes causes the
listener to think and consider the
Litotes are also a way to skirt an
issue or to try to save face.