Lexico-syntactical. Definitions and examples. Словарь терминов по стилистике английского языка
1. LEXICO-SYNTACTICAL devicesDefinitions and examples
Словарь терминов по стилистике английского
Кухаренко В.А., Гальперин И.Р., Арнольд И.В.
2. CLIMAX(gradation)a semantically complicated parallel
construction, in which each next word
combination (clause, sentence) is
logically more important or emotionally
stronger and more explicit
3. emotive climaxa two-step climax, in which the second
part repeats the first one and is further
strengthened by an intensifier
is based on the relative emotional
tension produced by words with emotive
4. Examples:He was so helpless, so very helpless.
e.g. She felt better, immensely better.
e.g. I have been so unhappy here, so
very very unhappy. (Dickens)
5. logical climaxa three-step climax, in which
intensification of logical importance, of
emotion or quantity (size, dimensions) is
gradually rising step by step
e.g. Better to borrow, better to beg, better to
e.g. For that one instant there was no one else
in the room, in the house, in the world, besides
6. quantitative climaxan evident increase in the volume of the corresponding
e.g. They looked at hundreds of houses; they
climbed thousands of stairs; they inspected
innumerable kitchens. (S.Maugham)
e.g. Little by little, bit by bit, and day by day,
and year by year the baron got the worst of
some disputed question. (Dickens)
7. anticlimaxa climax suddenly interrupted by an
unexpected turn of the thought which defeats
expectations of the reader and ends in
complete semantic reversal of the emphasised
Eg.Women have a wonderful instinct about
things. They can discover everything except
the obvious. (Wilde)
. He was uncon’solable - for an afternoon
8. simile/ˈsɪmɪli/an imaginative comparison of two unlike
objects belonging to two different classes on
the grounds of similarity of some quality. Used
to make a description more emphatic or vivid
(e.g. as brave as a lion).
two semantic poles of the simile can be
connected by one of the following link words:
“like”, “as”, “as though”, “as if”, “as like”, “such
as”, “as ... as”, etc.
9. Examples:e.g. She is like a rose.
e.g. He stood immovable like a rock in a
e.g. His muscles are hard as rock.
e.g. Maidens, like moths, are ever caught
by glare. (Byron)
But:The boy seems to be as clever as his
mother. – logical comparison (the same class
10. trite simileA simile, often repeated, becomes trite and adds to the
stock of language phraseology. Most of trite similes
have the foundation mentioned and conjunctions "as",
"as...as" used as connectives. Cf.: "as brisk as a bee",
"as strong as a horse", "as live as a bird"
Similes in which the link is expressed by notional verbs
such as "to resemble", "to seem", "to recollect", "to
remember", "to look like", "to appear", etc. are called
disguised, because the realization of the comparison is
somewhat suspended, as the likeness between the
objects seems less evident. Eg:"His strangely taut, fullwidth grin made his large teeth resemble a dazzling
miniature piano keyboard in the green light."
11. litotes [laɪ’təʊtiz]is a sd consisting of a peculiar use of negative
constructions: the negation plus noun or adjective serves
to establish a positive feature in a person or thing.
Expresses politeness or irony. Litotes intensifies the
emotion intended by the writer and moderately conveys
e.g.Her face isn't a bad one.
e.g. Soames, with his lips and his squared chin was not
unlike a bull dog. (Galsworthy)
'Indeed, it is not uncommon for slaves even to fall out and
quarrel among themselves about the relative goodness of
their masters .
12. E[amplesShe's not the friendliest person I know. (=
she's an unfriendly person)
The idea was not totally erroneous. The
thought did not displease me.
He is no coward.- Не is a brave man.
It was not unnatural if Gilbert felt a
certain embarrassment. (E.Waugh)
13. antithesis /ænˈtɪθəsɪs/a semantically complicated parallel construction, the
two parts of which are semantically opposite to each
- is to stress the heterogenity of the described
phenomenon, to show that the latter is a dialectical
unity of two (or more) opposing features
- basic functions: rhythm-forming copulative;
often signalled by the introductory connective but,
when so, the other structural signal, the parallel
arrangement, may not be evident, it may be
14. Examples:I want you to be wise in what is good, and innocent in
what is evil.
Some people have much to live on, and little to live for.
If we don’t know who gains by his death we do know
who loses by it. (A.Christie)
In marriage the upkeep of woman is often the downfall
of man. (S.Evans)
Don’t use big words. They mean so little. (Wilde)
Man proposes, God disposes.
Money is the root of all evils: poverty is the fruit of all
15. periphrasis /pəˈrɪfrəsɪs/circumlocutionperiphrasis /pə
. a) using a roundabout form of
expression instead of a simpler one
b) using a more or less complicated
syntactical structure instead of a word
e.g. The lamp-lighter made his nightly
failure in attempting to brighten up the
street with gas. [= lit the street lamps]
16. figurative periphrasisa periphrasis that is made of phrasemetonymies or phrase-metaphors
-is to convey a purely individual
perception of the described object
e.g. The hospital was crowded with
the surgically interesting products of the
fighting in Africa. [=wounded] (I.Shaw)
17. logical periphrasisphrase synonymic with the words which
were substituted by periphrasis because
the direct nomination of the not too
elegant feature of appearance was
substituted by a roundabout description
e.g. I am thinking an unmentionable thing
about your mother.
18. euphemisma word or phrase used to replace an
unpleasant word or expression by a
conventionally more acceptable one
e.g. to lie = to possess a vivid
imagination, to tell stories;
e.g. to die = to pass away, to expire, to be no
more, to depart, to join the majority