Psychology. Research Methods and Ethics in Psychology
1. Psychology @ FICResearch Methods and Ethics
2. Science/EmpiricismGoals of the Scientific Method:
Description and Measurement
Understanding and Prediction
Application and Control
of Explanation Theories
3. Steps in the Scientific Process1.
Observation The art of looking
Develop hypothesis (if/then)
Test hypothesis using empirical method
Design study complexity, variability and
Analyze data & interpret findings
Findings support/refute theory?
Test again - (new?) hypotheses
4. Types of ResearchDescriptive
Accurate & systematic measurement
Increases awareness of multiple variables
Association between variables
Predict relations between variables
Establish cause and effect relations
5. Three Descriptive ApproachesNaturalistic
Observing others--people watchers?
One of, Case Study Research
Tools: Questionnaires or interviews
6. Random Sampling: Generalizability
Two variables are said to
be correlated when variations in the
value of one variable are synchronized
with variations in the value of the other
Positive correlation: both variables
increase or decrease together
Negative correlation: as one variable
increases, the other decreases
8. CorrelationCorrelation coefficient: Measure of the
direction and strength of a correlation (r)
-1.0 (perfect negative correlation)
+1.0 (perfect positive correlation)
0 as no correlation
Let’s take a closer look.
9. Three Kinds of Correlations
10. Positive Correlations of Different Strengths
11. Experiments: Logic & DefinitionExperiments:
Logic & Definition
research method in which the
investigator manipulates a variable
under controlled conditions and
observes whether any changes occur in
a second variable
12. Variables: IV and DVIndependent
Called that because we vary it independently of
the other factors - to see if it has an effect on the
other variable of interest
Called that because it is hoped that it will vary as a
result of the impact of the independent variable
13. Elements of an ExperimentOther
Random Assignment (Random Sampling?)
14. Random Assignment: Equivalent Groups
15. Elements for Inferring CausationRandom
of all other factors
I.V. → D.V.
16. Limitations of ExperimentsSampling
18. Brief History of EthicsThe
1932 – 1972
US Public Health Service
of APA Code of Ethics
first published in 1953
19. Ethics – Humans in ResearchDesigning an Ethical Study
obtaining informed consent
subjects to withdraw
protection through regulations
what have we learned from animals?
Roger Sperry’s work on split-
- Schanberg’s work with newborn
Choose a research method, design the
IV, DV operational definitions
Limitations of chosen method
22. Focus questions:What
is the scientific method?
Why can theories be proven wrong but
What makes human beings especially
difficult to study?
What are the properties of a good
do people respond when they know
they’re being observed?
Why is it important for subjects to be
Why is it important for experimenters to
What are the two major kinds of
What are two measures of variability?
How can we tell if two variables are
the difference between a
positive and a negative correlation?
How can correlations be measured?
What does it mean for a correlation to
Why can’t we use natural correlations to
What is third-variable correlation?
Why can’t we allow people to select the
condition of the experiment in which they will
Why is random assignment so useful and
What is the difference between a population
and a sample?
What is good about random sampling?
What are the three features of ethical
What are psychologists expected to do when
they report the results of their research?