Translation as a means of intercultural collaboration. Lesson 2
1. Translation as a means of intercultural collaboration Перевод как средство межкультурного взаимодействия
2. Tongue twisters3.
I have got a date at a quarter to eight; I’ll see you
at the gate, so don’t be late
Red lorry, yellow lorry
A big black bear sat on a big black rug
Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper
3. A professional interpreter is able to translate in any situation
4. Lesson planPART 1
1. Check our home work and discuss findings
2. Using homework findings try to figure out the existing translation
techniques in general
3. The beginning of the translation process.
Is there an initial unit of translation?
Brainstorm: Knowledge and skills set of a translator
What is good and what is bad in translating.
4. Science of language/linguistics (языкознание). Does it matter?
Brainstorm: Translator – does it sound proud?
5. Lexical means/techniques of translation
Brainstorm: a translator is a servant of all the Lords?
5. PART 1
6. Home work tasksRevise the previous lesson
Perform your projects
Discuss the process
Define the unit of the translation
7. Literal Translation vs. Free TranslationTwo main methods of translation
Free translation - rendering the sense
of a source document
Literal translation - rendering as closely
as possible the wording, structure,
and grammar of a source document
8. What parts do you start with when translating?'And then there's the Butterfly,' Alice went on...
'Crawling at your feet/ said the Gnat (Alice drew her feet back in some
may observe a Bread-and-butter-fly. Its wings are thin slices of bread-andbutter, its
body is a crust, and its head is a lump of sugar.'
'And what does it live on?'
'Weak tea with cream in it.'
A new difficulty came into Alice's head. 'Supposing it couldn't find any?‘
'Then it would die, of course.'
'But that must happen very often,' Alice remarked thoughtfully.
'It always happens,' said the Gnat.
9. Unit of translationShuttleworth and Cowie (1997) define it
as: "a term used to refer to the
linguistic level at which ST is recodified
in TL" (p. 192).
ST. Barkhudarov (1993) defines a UT as
"the smallest unit of SL which has an
equivalent in TL" (as cited in
Shuttleworth and Cowie, 1997, p. 192).
translation unit would need to pay particular
care to preserving the features of the STs.
Newmark considers paragraph and text as
higher units of translation.
The TT must perform the purpose
advertisement, poetry : translated at the
level of text (or culture)
Medicines & foodstuffs : must carry
instructions and warning notices
11. SummaryThe unit of translation : the linguistic unit which the
translator uses when translating.
Individual word and group clause & sentence
text & intertextual levels.
Newmark : all lengths of language can be used as
units of translation in the course of translation
activity. The function of the whole texts and
references to extratextual features is also important.
12. Knowledge and set of skills of a translator/interpreter
13. PART 2 Linguistics. Why does it matter?
14. LinguisticsLinguistics can be defined as
the scientific or systematic
study of language. It is a
science in the sense that it
scientifically studies the rules,
systems and principles of
15. Linguistics has two main purposesOne is that it studies the nature of
language and tries to establish a theory
of language and describes languages in
the light of the theory established.
The other is that it examines all the
forms of language in general and seeks
a scientific understanding of the ways
in which it is organized to fulfill the
needs it serves and the functions it
performs in human life.
16. About LINGUISTICSMain branches of linguistics
17. Core branches of LinguisticsLinguistics
Sounds words sentences meaning
Phonetics/phonology morphology syntax semantics/pragmatics
18. Macrolinguistics （Peripheral branches ）Macrolinguistics
Language + psychology
Language + society
Language + anthropology
Language + computer
19. Translation techniques levelsLexical
20. Translator. Does it sound proud?
21. PART 3 Lexical translation techniques
22. Translation Techniques one of numerous interpretationsDirect Translation Techniques
are used when structural and conceptual elements of the
source language can be transposed into the target
language. Direct translation techniques include:
occurs when the translator transcribes
the SL characters or sounds in the TL (Bayar, 2007). This
procedure refers to the conversion of foreign letters into
the letters of the TL. It is commonly used to deal with
nouns that do not have equivalents in the TLT or to
preserve the local color of the SLT.
23. Transliteration vs transcription http://dressedbread.com/transcription-and-transliteration/Бруке или Бруце
Брюс Уиллис... Уилис…
concerned primarily with
the graphemes of another
concerned primarily with
SAUSAGE – > СОСИДЖ
SAUSAGE – > САУСАГЕ
Ватсон OR Уотсон?
24. Calque (loan phrase translation)The term ‘calque,’ or ‘Through-Translation’ as
Newmark (1988)  called it, refers to the case
where the translator imitates in his translation the
structure or manner of expression of the ST.
European Cultural Convention,
européenne; and study group,
from one language into another )
Literal Translation (word-for-word
Oblique Translation Techniques
Reformulation or Equivalence
Broadening of the meaning
Emphasizing or neutralization
27. Phraseological unitA Phraseological unit (PU) can be defined as a
non-motivated word-group that cannot be freely
made up in speech, but is reproduced as a readymade unit.
It is a group of words whose meaning cannot be
deduced by examining the meaning of the
A dark horse
a person about whom no one knows
A bull in a
a clumsy person
a waste of money because it is completely
The greeneyed monster
jealousy, the image being drawn from
28. Translation difficulties:Identify the Phraseological Unit
2. If there is some misconception
– think about the possible use
3. PU can have several
e.g. to come through with flying colours
“Dead-eye Dick” – Одноглазый
“The Underdog” – Собака,
которая не лает
Analyze the PU from the point of
Cultural background (Ceasar’s wife/Rome was
not built in a day)
Similarity of some PUs
always been that translation is really
a performance art. You take the
original and try to perform it, really, in
a different medium. Part of that is
about interpretation and what you
think the author's voice really is.