Category: biologybiology

Bases of plants ecology


Ministry education and Science of Republic of Kazakhstan
Karaganda State University named after academician
Ye.A. Buketov
Biological and geographical faculty
Botany Department
Course – Botany
Specialty - 5В011300 – «Biology»
Lecture № 28
Bases of plants ecology
(2 hours)
Lecturer: candidate of biological science, associated
Ishmuratova Margarita Yulaevna


Plan of lecture:
1 Ecological factors for plants.
2 Ecological groups of plants.
3 Life forms of plants.


Basic literatures:
1 Еленевский А.Г., Соловьев М.П., Тихомиров В.Н. Ботаника:
систематика высших, или наземных, растений. 2 изд. - М.:
Academіa, 2001. - 429 с.
2 Нестерова С.Г. Лабораторный практикум по систематике
растений. - Алматы: Қазақ ун-ті, 2011. - 220 с.
3 Родман А.С. Ботаника. – М.: Колос, 2001. - 328 с.
Additional literatures:
1 Билич Г.Л., Крыжановский В.А. Биология. Т. 2: Ботаника. - М.:
Оникс 21 век, 2002. - 543 с.
2 Ишмуратова М.Ю. Систематика и интродукция растений
(курс лекций). - Караганда: РИО Болашак-Баспа, 2015. - 100 с.
3 Тусупбекова Г.Т. Основы естествознания. Ч. 1. Ботаника. –
Астана: Фолиант, 2013. – 321 с.


Plant ecology- is a science about
communication between plants and elements
of environment.
All elements of environment are separated into
3 groups:
1) Need for plants;
2) dangerous;
3) Indifferent .
Need and dangerous element in general are
called ecological factors.


Classification of ecological factor:
1. Abiotical factors – are factors of non-living nature:
а) climate - light, worm, humidity, composition and
moving of air;
б) edaphic (soil) – is different chemical and physical
peculiarities of soils;
в) topographic – are factor of relief.
2. Biotic factors – are influences of living together
organisms to each others.
а) influence one plant into neighbor plants;
б) influence animals into plants;
в) influence micro organisms into plants.
3. Anthropogenic factors – are different influence of
human into plants.


Plasticity of plants species is vary in wide
conditions. So, all plants can be ranged into 3
1) Stenotope – with a small ecological
diapasons. For example, trees of tropical
2) Everytope – with a wide ecological diapasons.
For examples, Pinus sylvestris.
3) Average plasticity – are the most species.
They lie between stenotope and everytope


To influence of humidity it is determined
the following groups of plants.
1. Xerophytes – are plants growing in arid
conditions with deficit of water in soil or
2. Mesophytes – are plants growing in
conditions with enough amount of water.
3. Hygrophytes – are plants growing in
the conditions with high level of humidity
of soil or air.
4. Hydrophytes – are species growing in
water conditions.


By influence to sun light it is
usually separated the following
1) Heliophytes;
2) Scioheliophytes;
3) Sciophytes.


Raflesia Arnoldii


Plants – semi-parasites: 1 – Viscum album, low part of plant with root under
cork; 2 – cross-cut of branch; 3 – Melampyrum arvense, which parasite on


To depending from temperature it is
separated 4 ecological groups:
1)Megaterm – hot-resistant plants;
2)Mesoterm – lnot hot resistant;
3)Microterm – growing in cold climate;
4)Gecistoterm – cold resistant plants.


Depending of soil chemical
conditions are separated the
following ecological groups of
1) Acidophytes;
2) Basiophytes;
3) Neutrophytes.


Types of communication
between plants:
1. Mutualism.
2. Commensalism.
3. Parasitism.
4. Concurention.


Scheme of life forms
(according to A.
А – position of buds; Б –
perennial parts of stalk; 1
– hemocryptophytes; 2 –
cryptophytes; 3 –
terophytes; 4 phanerophytes; 5 –


Control questions:


Test question:
Groups of plants to soil conditions:
A) mesophytes
B) heliophytes
C) xerophytes
D) acidophytes
E) galophytes
F) Succulent
G) petrophytes
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