Category: biologybiology

Division Myxomycota. Division Fungi, Mycota. Class Ascomycetes


Ministry education and Science of Republic of Kazakhstan
Karaganda State University named after academician Ye.A.
Biological and geographical faculty
Botany Department
Course – Botany
Specialty - 5В011300 – «Biology»
Lecture № 13
Division Myxomycota. Division Fungi,
Mycota. Class Ascomycetes
(1 hour)
Lecturer: candidate of biological science, associated professor
Ishmuratova Margarita Yulaevna


Plan of lecture:
1 general characteristic of fungi.
2 Division Mixomycota.
3 Class Ascomycota.


Basic literatures:
1 Еленевский А.Г., Соловьев М.П., Тихомиров В.Н. Ботаника:
систематика высших, или наземных, растений. 2 изд. - М.: Academіa,
2001. - 429 с.
2 Нестерова С.Г. Лабораторный практикум по систематике растений. Алматы: Қазақ ун-ті, 2011. - 220 с.
3 Родман А.С. Ботаника. – М.: Колос, 2001. - 328 с.
Additional literatures:
1 Абдрахманов О.А. Систематика низших растений. – Караганда: Изд-во
КарГУ, 2009. - 188 с.
2 Билич Г.Л., Крыжановский В.А. Биология. Т. 2: Ботаника. - М.: Оникс 21
век, 2002. - 543 с.
3 Абдрахманов О.А. Практические работы по систематике низших
растений. Ч. 2. Грибы и водоросли. – Караганда: Изд-во КарГУ, 2001. 144 с.
4 Абдрахманов О.А. Лабораторный практикум по бактериям и
водорослям. Учебное пособие. - Алматы: Казакадем образование, 2000.
- 130 с.


Fungi are a group of organisms that lack chlorophyll, roots, stems,
leaves, and flowers. Once considered plants, they are now classified
in their own group. Fungi reproduce by means of spores, are usually
filamentous, have definite cell walls, and live a saprophytic or parasitic
existence. As saprophytes they share with bacteria the role of
decaying the remains of dead organisms, and as parasites they
cause diseases in plants and animals. The large fleshy fungi, such as
mushrooms, toadstools, bracket fungi, and puffballs, are familiar to
everyone who has walked the Illinois countryside. Other fungi include
the morels, truffles, earthstars, and bird’s nest fungi. Most fungi are
microscopic and not visible to the naked eye, such as molds, mildews,
yeasts, rusts, and smuts. Mushrooms produce a fruiting body that
consists of a stalk surmounted by a broad, umbrella-shaped cap. The
reproductive spores are produced on the sides of gills located on the
underside of the cap. The mushroom is only one part of the body of
the fungus: think of a mushroom as the apple on the tree. The
remainder consists of an extensive mass of threadlike filaments
(hyphae) that grow hidden in the soil or other substrate.



Technically, there is no difference between a
mushroom and a toadstool. By tradition, the term
“mushroom” refers to edible species, some highly
prized for their delicious flavors and aromas. The
term “toadstool” is used for poisonous species,
which produce toxic compounds that can cause
illness or death. Since both edible and poisonous
species can occur together and can resemble
each other, there is great danger of amateurs
confusing safe and toxic species. Only people
who are thoroughly familiar with the technical
identification of mushrooms should collect and
eat wild species.


Mushrooms can be found throughout most of the year,
but the largest number appear with the cool moist
weather of autumn. This diversity will last until
temperatures fall below freezing. Warm spring
temperatures combined with moist weather bring out the
second largest number of fleshy fungi, including many
gilled and pore fungi, morels, and puffballs. In late spring
and summer, the number of fleshy fungi drops to a low
point. A cool spell in August, accompanied by showers,
will bring out large numbers of puffballs and pore fungi.
However, the return of hot weather will quickly reduce
the numbers to a few scattered specimens.


Fungi, besides being tasty additions to pizza, are
important additions to our medicines and food. Many
antibiotics, including penicillin, streptomycin, terramycin,
aureomycin, and chloromycetin, were originally produced by fungi. Yeasts carry out the process of
fermentation, which makes possible bread, alcoholic
beverages, and vinegar. Fungi are also important in the
ripening of certain kinds of cheese, such as Roquefort,
Camembert, Brie, and Stilton.


Types of sexual process of mushrooms








1 – cell of yeast, 2 – beginning of budding, 3 – budding
(creation of pseudo mycelium), 4 – bag with spores


Control questions:
1 Which signs do separate fungi from other
groups of organisms?
2 Describe the structure of fungi cell.
3 Which life forms do Ascomycotes have?
4 Which common signs for plants and
5 What does ecological role of fungi?
6 Which nutrition compound do fungi


Test questions:
Practical uses of mushrooms:
А) food product
В) medical preparation
С) for fermintation
Д) production of metals
Е) for textile industry
F) As building materials
In life circle of yeast we can separate …. stages:
А) 1
В) 2
С) 3
Д) 4
Е) 5
English     Русский Rules