Category: businessbusiness

Development by tourism



Global Tourism : Development by Tourism / GNI and HDI wealth measures
The easiest way to get information about a country’s wealth is to find out how much the country makes each year –
Key Terms :
and divide it amongst the country’s population (per capita) to give an Average income per person. But this can give
an inaccurate impression. A country may seem to have quite a high ‘average’ income per person – but in reality
Per capita (per person)
there may be just a few super-rich people in the country, and the vast majority are quite poor. In the past this figure
GNI Gross national income
has been called GDP per capita (Gross Domestic Product), but a more recent term is GNI – Gross National Income.
More recently the United Nations (UN) has used a COMPOSITE MEASURE (a number calculated from 3 different
sets of numbers). The Human Development Index (HDI) can indicate the quality of health services in a country (by
looking at ‘Life Expectancy’) and the quality of Education (by looking at ‘Literacy rates’) as well as average income
through the GNI. Combining these figures gives a more accurate picture of what life is like for most people in that
HDI Human Development Index
Composite Measure
UN United Nations
Example / Case-Study :
Australia HDI 0.93
Spain HDI 0.86
Costa Rica HDI 0.72
Belize HDI
Possible Questions :
Why are some measures of
development better than others?
What are the pros and cons of 2
measure of a country’s wealthy
that you have studied?


Global Tourism : Development by Tourism / LEDC case-study : Belize
Belize – a small country in Central America is using tourism as a way to develop. It has a
range of factors which give it lots of advantages as a popular international tourist destination
of the future
Easy to fly to from the USA
and only 7 hours from
Close to the equator – so high
(closer tropical
temperatures all year. Ideal as a
resort than Thailand or India)
‘Winter Sun’ destination for
- the main places where
tourists from cold N. USA and
wealthy tourists come from
Europe in November - March
Is selling itself as an EcoTourism country with
fabulous unspoilt scenery
& wildlife habitats
Is seen as a peaceful
country with good
safety, little crime and
welcoming to tourists
Key Terms :
Winter sun destination
Wide variety of habitats
Low-cost destination
Example / Case-Study :
Belize – Central America
Possible Questions :
LEDC – so prices once you are
there are quite cheap for local
food, drink and tourist activities
Contrasting tourist
attractions – coral reefs in
the tropical waters, long
sandy beaches and rainforest
inland. Lots to do and see.
On the Caribbean Cruise
ship route – so lots of
customers as ships stop
off for a day or two
Has an international
airport – so visitors
can fly in easily
What makes certain places more
suitable to tourist development
than other places?
What are the physical, economic,
social and transport factors that
make some places successful
tourist destinations?


Global Tourism : Development by Tourism / Belize Tourism Benefits
Belize – a small country in Central America –
is developing itself as a major Eco-tourism
resort. It is developing the resort of ‘Belize
Caribbean Riviera’ as a centre for study and
enjoyment of marine and coastal wildlife, and
the inland Rainforest environment. It expects
tourists from the USA, Europe and cruise
ships which tour the Caribbean.
Jobs in the Belize Caribbean Riviera resort from tourism
Construction work : designing and building hotels & tourist attractions
Managing : Hotel management, hotel reception, hotel catering
Activity : tour guide in local area, teaching scuba diving, driving hire boats
Maintenance : ground staff for town parks, monitoring aquarium wildlife
Jobs in the local region around the resort from tourism
Transport : air traffic control & airport baggage handlers at Belize airport
Security : immigration officers at airport and ports, traffic police
Farming : fishermen and farmers producing food for tourist hotels
Jobs in the whole country which can develop from tourism
Transport : building roads, driving taxis, flying tourists in
Construction : building power stations, water supply and sewage treatment
Planning : advertising Belize to foreign tourists, planning future developments
By focusing on tourism growth,
Belize can move many of its people
from low-pay Primary jobs as
farmers (Nepal), to higher-pay
Secondary jobs (making furniture
for hotels; making souvenirs) – as in
Brazil, or higher skill Tertiary jobs
(service jobs in hotels, bars, tourist
activities etc) as in the USA
Key Terms :
Employment opportunities
Primary occupations
Secondary occupations
Tertiary occupations
Development Tourism
Example / Case-Study :
Belize – Central America
Possible Questions :
How can development tourism
benefit a country?
How does investment in tourism
help raise people’s standard of


Global Tourism : Development by Tourism / Belize Tourism Problems
Economic problems
Social problems
Environmental problems
Many jobs are ‘seasonal’ – they
just last for the holiday season.
You may be out of work during
the hurricane season July - Nov
There is a flow of young people
from the interior of Belize to the
coast seeking work. This breaks
up traditional families.
So many people are looking for
work in tourism that it drives
down the wages to low levels
Many jobs are low-skill and low
pay with few chances of
promotion such as bar staff
Is Belize Tourism set for the Longterm, or Boom and Bust ?
There is a range is issues which could put
tourists off returning to Belize – or putting
off friends and family from booking. Bad
news spreads quickly on the internet, and
one person’s bad experience can lead to
dozens of people cancelling :
Many jobs are low-skill and low
pay with few chances of
promotion such as bar staff
Many teenagers drop out of school
early to earn money selling legal (&
illegal) items to tourists
Key Terms :
Seasonal jobs
Coastal migration
STDs sexually transmitted
Low-wage spiral
There is the spread of disease
brought in by visitors –
particularly STDs from those
involved in paying for prostitutes
Beach-front is bought up by hotels
and locals are banned from using the
shoreline of their own country
Cruise ships often discharge sewage & waste illegally
off the coast at night – polluting the water for
fishermen & scub divers
• Serious Hurricane Damage closing airport and wrecking
hotels causes people not to return or cancel. (Physical)
• Reports of crime, rape, murder – which may not be
more than in other resorts but may give Belize a bad
reputation. Quickly spread on internet chat rooms (Social)
• Economic recession in Europe and the USA – so
tourists cut down where they go and how often –
cancelling long haul trips to places like Belize (Economic)
• Safety fears over STDS, accidents from speedboats etc.
or coach accidents – which hit the headlines. (Social)
Example / Case-Study :
Belize – Central America
Possible Questions :
What are the problems of tourism
in an LEDC you have studied?
What are the negative impacts
tourists bring – and which are the
most serious?
What can cause tourists to decide
not to go to a resort that was once


Global Tourism : Development by Tourism / Belize Leakage of Revenue
Key Terms :
Leakage of tourist revenue
Tour company
Tax revenue
Example / Case-Study :
Belize – Central America
Possible Questions :
Why does being a popular tourist
resort not guarantee the country
becomes wealthy?
How do global travel companies
manage the way holidays are
Are global travel companies a
‘friend’ to less affluent countries
wanting to develop tourism?
Leakage of tourist revenue means
that much of the money that is spent on
holidays doesn’t end up in the country
that the tourist is going to – but stays in
the country where the visit was booked
– especially if the airlines and hotels are
owned by companies in the MEDC.
• setting up a national airline so that visitors fly there
on Belize planes and this company gets the profits
• insisting that a percentage of hotels are owned by
Belize companies – and not just foreign tour firms
Ways of keeping tourist revenue in
Belize include ………..
• insisting that tour reps and guides are local Belize
employees – and not from the tour company’s country
• ensuring home-grown food and drinks are sold in
hotels and bars as well as imported brand names


Global Tourism : Development by Tourism / Belize Evaluation
Belize is trying to close the Development Gap by focusing on tourism. In particular it wants to develop as an
Eco-tourism resort with smaller numbers of wealthy tourists rather than Mass Tourism. It aims for Sustainable
tourism which will bring it benefits long into the future. The question is – has it worked?
Linked consequence
There are increasing numbers of better
paid Tertiary jobs in tourism such as
hotel receptionist, and tour guide leader
This gives people a better standard of
living and allows them to pay for
medical care for children and school
fees so they get educated
The Belize government can tax the
tourism industry – hotels, planes landing
and tourists and invest the money
Roads get improved, local people can
use the modern airport, water and
electricity supplies are improved
BUT….Because of the huge ‘leakage’ of
revenue – Belize only gets about 18% of
the money spent on holidays there. It could
improve a lot more if it reduced ‘leakage’
Eco- tourists want to see wildlife – both
in the sea and inland in the rainforest
and employ local guides to show them
This protects the natural environment
and local people help ensure habitats
are protected. Animal numbers (turtles)
are now increasing
BUT….so many people want to go to see
the coral reefs, they are being destroyed
by propellers, anchors and sand being
disturbed making the water less clear
There are more cruise ships visiting the
ports in Belize which brings extra
tourists on a regular basis
Lots of young people are migrating to
the coast to find work in the tourism
industry as they see this as the future of
the country
BUT….The jobs are ‘seasonal’ and people
have to make sure pay lasts during the
hurricane seasons when fewer tourists
come to Belize
They buy a lot of souvenirs made by
local craftsmen and want to see
traditional customs. This keeps
traditions and the culture alive
BUT….The cruise ship tourists bring
diseases – like STDs which are spread
through the population from prostitution
With so many young people looking for
work, employers can pay less in wages
and keep holidays fairly ‘low cost’ and
help keep Belize attractive to tourists
BUT….The migration of young people
breaks up families and their low pay means
some turn to crime & drugs to earn money.
This gets Belize a bad reputation
There are many economic, social and environmental benefits to Belize coming from its growth as an eco-tourist
centre. Being close to the USA it can attract many wealthy tourists. But there are also many negative aspects of
tourism. If Belize could reduce the ‘leakage of revenue’ and keep more of the profits from tourism – it could
improve the social areas of life for its citizens faster. It’s likely that the environment won’t be damaged – as in
Benidorm – because focusing on eco-tourism means everyone is trying to protect the habitats. But there are
many factors which could still cause tourists to stop coming to Belize in the future which are outside the control
of the Belize people – more hurricanes, recession in the USA, or bad internet rumours about crime or accidents
Possible Questions
Compare the effects of
tourism in an MEDC with
those in an LEDC
For a tourist destination
you have studied evaluate
the extent to which it is
successfully managing its
What is meant by
‘sustainable tourism’ and
how do countries try to
achieve it?
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