Parts of speech
1. LECTURE 3 PARTS OF SPEECHВасильева Е.В., БГУ, г. Улан-Удэ
2. PLAN1. The notion of parts of speech and the
criteria for their discrimination.
2. The main notional parts of speech and
3. The main functional parts of speech and
4. Subcategorization of the parts of
5. Parts of speech migration.
3. 1. The notion of parts of speechStudy the following words and try to classify them.
Argue the basis of your classification.
Book, swim, beautiful, girl, one, classify, third,
nicely, in, tables, write, came, under.
Parts of speech are grammatically
relevant classes of words (or lexemes)
obtaining more or less common features.
4. 1. Criteria for parts of speech discriminationCRITERIA for Parts of Speech discrimination
5. 1. Criteria for parts of speech discriminationSEMANTIC
The categorial (lexico-grammatical)
meaning of the part of speech.
It means the generalized meaning
characteristic to all the words in a
given part of speech.
Noun - substance, thingness.
Verb - action, process, etc.
6. 1. Criteria for parts of speech discriminationFORMAL
A) Specific forms of derivation. Some typical stem
building and lexico- grammatical affixes.
Noun affixes: -tion, -ship, -dom, -ism, etc.
B) Morphological grammar categories. Thus,
the paradigm of a word shows to what part of
speech it belongs.
Noun - case, number.
Verb - tense, aspect, voice, person, etc.
Compare the following paradigms:
Conclusion: NOT ALL the lexemes of apart pf
speech have the same paradigm
8. 1. Criteria for parts of speech discriminationFUNCTIONAL
A) Typical combinability. Left-hand and righthand connections. (Combinability is the power of a class of
words to form combinations of definite patterns with words of certain
classes irrespective of their lexical or grammatical meanings)
Art+Noun (a/the book); Prep +Noun (to/from/at school);
B) Syntactical functions in the sentence.
Noun – Subject, Predicative, Object…
Verb - Predicate
9. 1. The notion of parts of speechPARTS OF SPEECH IN
Noun, Verb, Adverb,
10. 1. The notion of parts of speechFEATURES of the functional parts of speech
They have very general and comparatively
weak lexical meanings.
They obtain obligatory unilateral (articles,
particles) or bilateral combinability
They have the functions of linking
(prepositions, conjunctions) or specifying
(articles, particles) words.
11. 2. The main notional parts of speech and their characteristics.The features of the noun : 1) the categorial
meaning of substance ("thingness"); 2) the
changeable forms of number and case; the
specific suffixal forms of derivation (prefixes
in English do not discriminate parts of
speech as such); 3) the substantive functions
in the sentence (subject, object, substantival
predicative); prepositional connections;
modification by an adjective.
12. 2. The main notional parts of speech and their characteristics.The features of the adjective: 1) the
categorial meaning of property
(qualitative and relative); 2) the forms of
the degrees of comparison (for qualitative
adjectives); the specific suffixal forms of
derivation; 3) adjectival functions in the
sentence (attribute to a noun, adjectival
13. 2. The main notional parts of speech and their characteristics.The features of the numeral: 1) the
categorial meaning of number (cardinal
and ordinal); 2) the narrow set of simple
numerals; the specific forms of
composition for compound numerals; the
specific suffixal forms of derivation for
ordinal numerals; 3) the functions of
numerical attribute and numerical
14. 2. The main notional parts of speech and their characteristics.The features of the pronoun: 1) the
categorial meaning of indication (deixis);
2) the narrow sets of various status with
the corresponding formal properties of
categorial changeability and word-building;
3) the substantival and adjectival functions
for different sets.
15. 2. The main notional parts of speech and their characteristics.The features of the verb: 1) the categorial
meaning of process (presented in the two
upper series of forms, respectively, as finite
process and non-finite process); 2) the
forms of the verbal categories of person,
number, tense, aspect, voice, mood; the
opposition of the finite and non-finite forms;
3) the function of the finite predicate for the
finite verb; the mixed verbal — other than
verbal functions for the non-finite verb.
16. 2. The main notional parts of speech and their characteristics.The features of the adverb: 1) the categorial
meaning of the secondary property, i.e.
the property of process or another
property; 2) the forms of the degrees of
comparison for qualitative adverbs; the
specific suffixal forms of derivation; 3) the
functions of various adverbial modifiers.
17. 3. The main functional parts of speech and their characteristicsThe article expresses the specific limitation
of the substantive functions.
The preposition expresses the dependencies
and interdependences of substantive
The conjunction expresses connections of
The interjection, occupying a detached
position in the sentence, is a signal of
18. 3. The main functional parts of speech and their characteristicsThe particle unites the functional words of
specifying and limiting meaning. To this
series, alongside of other specifying
words, should be referred verbal
postpositions as functional modifiers of
19. 3. The main functional parts of speech and their characteristicsThe modal word, occupying in the sentence
a detached position, expresses the
attitude of the speaker to the reflected
situation and its parts. Here belong the
functional words of probability (probably,
perhaps, etc.), of qualitative evaluation
(fortunately, unfortunately, luckily, etc.), and
also of affirmation and negation.
20. 4. Subcategorization of the parts of speech.Each part of speech is further subdivided
into subclasses on the basis of semanticofunctional or formal features.
21. 4. Subcategorization of the parts of speech.NOUN subclasses:
Proper – common
Example: Mary – person
Animate – inanimate
Example: Lion – field
Concrete – abstract
Example: coin - honesty
Countable – uncountable
Example: notebook - news
22. 4. Subcategorization of the parts of speech.VERB subclasses:
Finite – non-finite (fully predicative – partially
Example: goes – to go, going, gone
Transitive – intransitive
Example: put, take – live, ache
Actional – statal
Example: play, ride – exist, suffer
Example: work – go, put
23. 4. Subcategorization of the parts of speech.ADJECTIVE subclasses:
Qualitative – relative
Example: long, comfortable – deaf, wooden
Factive – evaluative
Example: tall, mental – kind, brave
24. 5. Parts of speech migration.The stems of two or more lexemes may
belong to different parts of speech. Such
words are called polyfunctional.
Examples: love – to love, doctor – to doctor,
man – to man, home (n) – home (adv.)
This is a result of words migration. The
lexemes have different paradigms:
Examples: doctor – doctors – doctor’s –
doctors’ and to doctor, doctored, doctoring,
25. 5. Parts of speech migration.The new parts of speech are built by
conversion in such examples.
Polyfunctional words are present both in
the notional and semi-notional parts of
Examples: He arrived before seven
(preposition). I have never seen you before
(adverb).Wash your hands before you have
dinner (subordinating conjunction).