The Endocrine System
Endocrine System
The Theory of Communication
Body Communication
Autocrines vs. Paracrines
How can chemicals alter cellular function?
Hormones can…
Human Growth Hormone – Normal Amounts
Examples – HGH Abnormally High Amounts
Testosterone – Normal Amounts
Testosterone – Abnormal Amounts/ Gender Differences
Hormone Classification
Amino acid-Based Hormones
Receptor Proteins
Water Soluble (Amino acid-based) Hormones
Fat-Soluble Hormones
Fat-Soluble Hormones
Hormone Life (Half-life)
Hormone Release
Hypothalamus Hormones
Pituitary Gland
Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)
Posterior Pituitary
Anterior vs. Posterior Pituitary
Anterior Pituitary
Pituitary Perfusion (Posterior)
Pituitary Perfusion (Anterior)
Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Structure
Thyroid Synthesis
Thyroid Production
The Parathyroid Glands
The Adrenal Glands
Adrenal Cortex
Adrenal Cortex – Zona glomerulosa
The Adrenal Medulla
Pineal Gland
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetes Symptoms
Menstrual Cycle
Category: medicinemedicine

The Endocrine System

1. The Endocrine System

Dr. Anderson

2. Endocrine System

• A collection of glands
that work together to
maintain the
homeostasis of the
body by:
• Coordinating
_________and activity
via chemical

3. The Theory of Communication

• All communication has at least three parts
• Sender – entity that releases information
• Message – the forms of the information itself
• Receiver – the entity that collects and
interprets the information contained in the

4. Hormones

• Hormones are chemicals released by glands
that control the function/activity of cells
generally far from the source of production

5. Body Communication

• Sender?
Tissue that creates the hormone
• Message?
The hormone itself
• Receiver?
The target tissue

6. Autocrines vs. Paracrines

Autocrines – cells
produce hormones that
effect themselves
Paracrines – cells
produce hormones that
effect other nearby cells

7. How can chemicals alter cellular function?

8. Hormones can…

1. Alter cell membrane permeability
2. Stimulate synthesis of proteins or enzymes
3. Activates or deactivates enzymes
4. Induces exocytosis
5. Stimulates mitosis

9. Human Growth Hormone – Normal Amounts

10. Examples – HGH Abnormally High Amounts

11. Testosterone – Normal Amounts

12. Testosterone – Abnormal Amounts/ Gender Differences

13. Hormone Classification

• 3 Chemical classes
– Amino acid based
– Steroid-based (sterols)
– Eicosanoid (lipid-based)
• What is the most important functional
difference between these molecules?

14. Amino acid-Based Hormones

• Water soluble, so can diffuse through blood
and body fluids easily
• However, they are generally fat-insoluble
• How do they enter and affect cells?

15. Receptor Proteins

• Target cells have receptors for each hormone
– Not every cell has all receptors
• Receptors bind with hormones to start a series
of events, ultimately changing cell function

16. Water Soluble (Amino acid-based) Hormones

17. Fat-Soluble Hormones

• Can go right through the cell membrane!
• Bond with receptor proteins in the cytoplasm
instead of the cell membrane
• Receptor-hormone complex can bond to DNA
to initiate gene expression

18. Fat-Soluble Hormones

19. Hormone Life (Half-life)

• Presence of a
hormone in the blood
is limited by:

20. Hormone Release

• What controls the release/retention of
1. Humoral Stimulus – Blood levels of certain
2. Neural Stimulus- Nerve fibers stimulate
hormone release
3. Hormonal Stimuli – hormones tell glands to
release/retain hormones

21. Regulation

• Hypothalamus –
regulates most
hormonal release in
the body
– Monitors body
homeostasis (blood
sugar, wastes,
hormone levels)
– Direct link to pituitary
Pituitary gland

22. Hypothalamus Hormones

• The hypothalamus makes two hormones that
are stored in the posterior pituitary gland
– Oxytocin
• These hormones travel down the
infundibulum ( nerve extensions) into the
posterior pituitary where they are stored

23. Pituitary Gland

• Bi-lobed structure that stores and produces
• Under the direct control of the hypothalamus!

24. Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)

25. Posterior Pituitary

• Does not create, but rather stores hormones
that are made in the hypothalamus
• Derived from nervous tissue
– Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) – Oxytocin

26. Anterior vs. Posterior Pituitary

27. Anterior Pituitary

• Derived from epithelial tissue (secretory cells)
• Creates MANY hormones de novo

Human growth hormone (HGH)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
Leutinizing Hormone
Follicle Stimulating Hormone
• Released or inhibited as directed by hormones
from hypothalamus (stimulates or inhibits AP
hormone production and release)

28. Pituitary Perfusion (Posterior)

• Posterior Pituitary
(PP) is perfused with
one major artery and
• Carries PP hormones
out to body

29. Pituitary Perfusion (Anterior)

• Capillaries are “split”
(form plexi) twice!
– Primary capillary
– Secondary capillary
• Why???
Primary plexus
Secondary plexus

30. Thyroid Gland

• Surrounds the
trachea (bilateral
• Produces the
hormone thyroxin
• Why is this not
considered to be an
exocrine gland?

31. Thyroid Structure

• Principal (Follicle)
Cells – produce
• Colloid – stores
thyroglobulin and
iodine molecules
• Parafollicular cells –
produce calcitonin

32. Thyroid Synthesis

1. Thyroglobulin made by follicular cells and goes
into follicle
2. Iodine trapped from the blood (active transport)
3. Iodide converted to iodine
4. Iodine attached to tyrosine
5. Iodinated tyrosines are linked
6. Thyroglobulin is endocytosed
7. Thyroid hormone is processed by enzymes and
diffuse from the cell into the blood stream

33. Thyroid Production

34. Calcitonin

• Produced by the
parafollicular cells in the
• Release of calcitonin results
in lowered blood Calcium
– 1. Inhibits osteoclast activity
– 2. Enhances bone absorption
of Ca.

35. The Parathyroid Glands

• Paired glands located on the posterior aspect
of the thyroid
• They produce parathyroid hormone which
control Calcium levels in the blood
– Antagonist of calcitonin (inhibited by rising Ca

36. The Adrenal Glands

• Divided into two
– Adrenal Medulla (the
core of the gland)
– Adrenal Cortex (the
outermost layer of
• Zona glomerulosa
• Zona fasciculate
• Zona reticularis

37. Adrenal Cortex

• Produces
corticosteroids (derived
from cholesterol!)
• Each zone of the cortex
produces its own suite
of hormones that are
functionally specific

38. Adrenal Cortex – Zona glomerulosa

• Produce mineralocorticoids
– Regulate ion concentration in blood and
interstitial fluid
– Aldosterone reduces excretion of Na + from the
body and enhances resorption
• Production triggered by low blood volume, low blood
pressure and increases in K+ ion concentration.
• Why is this important?

39. Glucocorticoids

• Synthesized in zona
• Cortisol – steroid-based
– Release of cortisol promoted
by ACTH release
– Depresses inflammation,
increases blood sugar by
provoking gluconeogenesis

40. Gluconeogenesis

• Where do sugars normally come from?
• Gluconeogenesis -

41. Gonadocorticoids

• Secreted in the zona
• Most are weak androgens
(precursors to testosterone
and estrogen)
– Not really (anabolic)
• Play a large role during
puberty (both sexes) and
female sex drive

42. The Adrenal Medulla

• Chromaffin cells produce
– Epinephrine
– Norepinephine
• Released during fight-orflight stress
– Increases heart rate,
constricts blood vessels
(increasing blood pressure)
for a short time

43. Pineal Gland

• Located in the diencephalon
• Produces melatonin, which
causes drowsiness
• Decreased light, received by
the eyes (to brain) stimulate
the release of melatonin

44. Pancreas

• Organ most directly related in regulating
blood sugar
• Two hormones produced
– Glucagon – produced by alpha cells when blood
sugar is low (hypoglycemia)
– Insulin – produced when blood sugar is high

45. Pancreas

46. Glucagon

• When released from the pancreas,
1. causes the breakdown of glycogen (liver starch)
into sugar
2. Gluconeogenesis
3. Release of glucose from liver cells into the blood

47. Insulin

• When released from the pancreas, insulin…
1. Enhances cellular uptake of blood glucose
2. Inhibits gluconeogenesis
3. Inhibits the breakdown of glycogen to

48. Diabetes mellitus

• Due to low or non-functional insulin
• Since sugar cannot be absorbed into body
– Blood sugar levels rise (hyperglycemia)
– This stress causes the body to release MORE
glucose into the blood!
• Gluconeogenesis from fat and protein conversion, the
waste products of which lead to ketoacidosis (nail
polish breath)

49. Diabetes Symptoms

• In the kidneys, sugar lost in urine pulls water
from the blood at excessive rates (polyuria)
• Dehydration leads to excessive thirst
• Excessive hunger (polyphagia) results as fat
stores are used in a effort to get sugar into
body cells

50. Ovaries

• Ovaries – produce
estrogen and
– Estrogen – regulates
monthly menstrual
– Progesterone – support
pregnancy and

51. Menstrual Cycle

52. Testes

• Produce testosterone
leading to puberty
(secondary sex
aggression, muscle
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