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# Distinguish between a population and a sample

## 1. Distinguish between a population and a sample

Things you should know from Chapter 1Distinguish between a population

and a sample

Examples:

Identify the population and sample in each study

1. Thirty-eight nurses working in the San Francisco area were

surveyed concerning their opinions of managed health

care.

2. A survey of 39 credit cards found that the average annual

percentage rate is 12.83%.

## 2. Distinguish between a population and a sample

Things you should know from Chapter 1Distinguish between a population

and a sample

ANSWERS

Examples:

Identify the population and sample in each study

1. Thirty-eight nurses working in the San Francisco area were surveyed

concerning their opinions of managed health care. Population – opinions

of all nurses in San Fran area. Sample – opinions of the 38 nurses

surveyed.

2.

A survey of 39 credit cards found that the average annual percentage rate

is 12.83%. Population – annual percentage rates of all credit cards.

Sample – the percentage rates of the 39 credit cards surveyed.

## 3. Distinguish between a parameter and a statistic

Things you should know from Chapter 1Distinguish between a parameter

and a statistic

Examples:

Identify if each describes a parameter or a statistic.

1. The 2009 team payroll of the Philadelphia Phillies was

$113,004,046.

2.

In a survey of 752 adults in the US, 42% think there should be a law

that prohibits people from talking on cell phones in public places.

3.

In a recent study of math majors at a university, 10 students were

minoring in physics.

## 4. Distinguish between a parameter and a statistic

Things you should know from Chapter 1Distinguish between a parameter

and a statistic

ANSWERS

Examples:

Identify if each describes a parameter or a statistic.

1. The 2009 team payroll of the Philadelphia Phillies was

$113,004,046. Parameter.

2.

In a survey of 752 adults in the US, 42% think there should be a law

that prohibits people from talking on cell phones in public places.

Statistic.

3.

In a recent study of math majors at a university, 10 students were

minoring in physics. Parameter.

## 5. Distinguish between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

Things you should know from Chapter 1Distinguish between descriptive

statistics and inferential statistics

Example:

1. A survey of 39 credit cards found that the

average annual percentage rate is 12.83%.

- Which part of this study represents the

descriptive branch of statistics. Make an inference

based on the results of the study.

## 6. Distinguish between descriptive statistics and inferential statistics

Things you should know from Chapter 1Distinguish between descriptive

statistics and inferential statistics

ANSWERS

Example:

1. A survey of 39 credit cards found that the average

annual percentage rate is 12.83%.

- Which part of this study represents the

descriptive

branch of statistics. 39 credit cards surveyed had an average

annual percentage rate of 12.83%. Make an inference based

on the results of the study. The average annual percentage

rate of all credit cards is 12.83%.

## 7. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data.

Things you should know from Chapter 1Distinguish between qualitative and

quantitative data.

Examples:

1. The monthly salaries of the employees at an

accounting firm.

2. The social security numbers of the employees at

an accounting firm.

3. The marital statuses of all professional golfers.

## 8. Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data.

Things you should know from Chapter 1Distinguish between qualitative and

quantitative data.

ANSWERS

Examples:

1. The monthly salaries of the employees at an accounting

firm. Quantitative.

2. The social security numbers of the employees at an

accounting firm. Qualitative.

3. The marital statuses of all professional golfers.

Qualitative.

## 9. Classify data according to the four levels of measurement.

Things you should know from Chapter 1Classify data according to the four

levels of measurement.

Examples:

1. A list of badge numbers of police officers at a

precinct. (note: badge numbers can identify

officer rank).

2. The horsepowers of racing car engines.

3. The top 10 grossing films released in 2010.

4. The years of birth for the runners in the Boston

marathon.

## 10. Classify data according to the four levels of measurement.

Things you should know from Chapter 1Classify data according to the four

levels of measurement.

ANSWERS

Examples:

1. A list of badge numbers of police officers at a precinct.

(note: badge numbers can identify officer rank).

Ordinal.

2. The horsepowers of racing car engines. Ratio.

3. The top 10 grossing films released in 2010. Ordinal.

4. The years of birth for the runners in the Boston

marathon. Interval.

## 11. Know how data are collected – by doing an observational study, performing experiment, using a simulation, using a survey, or taking a census.

Things you should know from Chapter 1Know how data are collected – by doing an

observational study, performing experiment, using a

simulation, using a survey, or taking a census.

Examples:

Which method of data collection would you use:

1. A study on the effect of low dietary intake of

vitamin C and iron on lead levels in adults.

2. A study of charitable donations of the CEOs in

Syracuse, New York.

3. A study of college professors’ opinions on

teaching classes online.

## 12. Know how data are collected – by doing an observational study, performing experiment, using a simulation, using a survey, or taking a census.

Things you should know from Chapter 1Know how data are collected – by doing an

observational study, performing experiment, using a

simulation, using a survey, or taking a census.

ANSWERS

Examples:

Which method of data collection would you use:

1. A study on the effect of low dietary intake of vitamin C

and iron on lead levels in adults. Experiment.

2. A study of charitable donations of the CEOs in Syracuse,

New York. Census. (or survey – but census would be

better)

3. A study of college professors’ opinions on teaching

classes online. Survey.

## 13. Know good ways to design an experiment.

Things you should know from Chapter 1Know good ways to design an

experiment.

- Sample size, sampling methods, control/placebo

with blind studies, replication

## 14. Identify/describe the different sampling techniques: simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, convenience sampling, and systematic sampling

Things you should know from Chapter 1Identify/describe the different sampling

techniques: simple random sampling, stratified

sampling, cluster sampling, convenience

sampling, and systematic sampling

ANSWERS

Examples:

Identify the sampling technique. Explain your decision.

1. A student asks 18 friends to participate in a psychology experiment. Convenience –

because it is convenient to non-randomly choose your friends. (could be other

answers, as long as they are correctly supported)

2. A pregnancy study in Cebu, Philippines randomly selects 33 communities form the

Cebu metropolitan area, then interviews all available pregnant women in these

communities. Cluster – several groups were randomly selected and all members of

those groups were interviewed.

3. Law enforcement officials stop and check the driver of every third vehicle for blood

alcohol content. Systematic – a predetermined system to the sampling.

4. Twenty-five students are randomly selected from each grade level at a high school

and surveyed about their study habits. Stratified – population divided into groups

(grade levels) and students randomly selected from each group.

## 15. Identify a biased sample

Things you should know from Chapter 1Identify a biased sample

Examples:

Identify a bias that might occur in the following

studies:

1. A student asks 18 friends to participate in a

psychology experiment.

2. Law enforcement officials stop and check the

driver of every third vehicle for blood alcohol

content.

## 16. Identify a biased sample

Things you should know from Chapter 1Identify a biased sample

ANSWERS

Examples:

Identify a bias that might occur in the following studies:

1. A student asks 18 friends to participate in a psychology

experiment. Biased – groups of friends tend to have

similar traits/personalities.

2. Law enforcement officials stop and check the driver of

every third vehicle for blood alcohol content. Not really

biased. (could be biased depending on the location –

could be outside of a concert/bar/etc)