Category: geographygeography




Canada is situated on the north of Northern America,
washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the east, the Pacific
Ocean in the west, and the Arctic Ocean in the north and
in the northeast by the Baffin Bay and the Davis Strait,
which separate it from Greenland, In the south and in
the north Canada borders on the USA. It is a land of vast
distances and rich natural resources. Canada became a
self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to
the British crown. Canada's territory is the world's
second largest country, surpassed in size only by Russia.
It includes many islands, notably the Canadian Arctic
Islands, also called Arctic Archipelago in the Arctic
Ocean. Economically and technologically the nation has
developed in parallel with the US, its neighbour to the
south. The total area is about 10 million sq km. Canada is
slightly larger than the US. It is an important
manufacturer, and its major cities, such as Toronto,
Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Edmonton, Calgary and
Winnipeg are centres of commerce and industry.


Canada is a good example of the way peoples of different ways
of life and different languages can live side by side under one
government. The population of Canada has risen from 11,5
million in 1941 to 25 million in 1980. Most of the newcomers are
from Europe, Asia and the USA, so that today less than 44% of
Canada’s population is of British origin.
There are many Indians, Pacistanis and Chinese, and also blacks from the
USA, among the immigrants who are pouring into Canada now. Some
Canadians are afraid that before long Canada will have coloured citizens
that white. Other Canadians are disturbed by the growing racism in their
country. Canada, like so many countries, has only just begun to treat her
own non-white citizens, Eskimos (or Inuit) and the Indians, as generously
as they deserve. The Indian and Eskimo populations have grown quite a lot
in the last few years. The government is at last realizing that it has a duty
towards this people that it has neglected for so long.
Until the Second World War, every Canadian province except Quebec was
overwhelmingly British. Some Canadians were more patriotic than the British
themselves and were really angry if anyone walked out of a cinema while ‘God Save
the King’ was being played. Now Canadians think of themselves as a people in their
own right, not tied to either Britain or the USA. The USA has not been a threat to
Canada for almost two hundred years. In fact, the 6,416 km US-Canadian frontier is
the longest continuous frontier in the world, has no wire fence, no soldiers, no guns
on either side. It is called ‘The Border’.


The country is full of sights indeed. There are architectural, natural, cultural,
historic and other types of sights. One of the most interesting places in Canada
is its capital - Ottawa. The main sights of the city are the Parliament, where
even ordinary people are welcome, the Tower of Peace with 53 bells,
picturesque quarters around the Market Hall Bayvord, Rideau Canal, which
turns into the longest ice-rink in the world in winter, Canadian Museum of
Nature and numerous other sights. Toronto is another tourist attraction. It’s the
largest Canadian city and also the main cultural and trade center of Englishspeaking part of the country. The city is a huge megalopolis with lots of
skyscrapers and office buildings. At the same time Toronto is a quite green city,
full of trees, bushes and flowers. The main sights of the city is the
entertainment complex at the Ontario square, Hyde Park and Queen
Elizabeth’s Park, Islands Park on Lake Ontario, golden tower of the Royal Bank
Plaza, Roy Thomson Concert Hall, a symbol of the city - 553-meter “CN Tower”,
the famous shopping mall Eaton Center and many others. Speaking about
Canadian sights it’s important to mention the Agawa canyon area, and of
course, the famous Niagara Falls.


Canada is situated in the northern part of
the North American continent. It is washed
by the Pacific Ocean in the west, by the
Atlantic Ocean in the east and by the Arctic
Ocean and its seas in the north. That is why
the climate and the nature of Canada are
much varied. The northern parts lie in the
subarctic and arctic climatic zones. Most of
the northern islands are covered with ice.
The bays between them are covered with
ice for 9-10 months a year. This territory has
a climate with very cold winters and short,
cool summers. The average winter
temperature there is about 35 degrees
below zero.
The average summer temperature is about 4 degrees above zero. It contrasts with the rest of the
territory, where the climate is moderate. This part gets enough amount of rainfall and heat. In the
south there are large areas of fertile soils. The west of the country has a mild and humid climate thanks
to a warm Pacific current. The average winter temperature is about 4 degrees above zero there. The
average summer temperature is 21 degrees above zero. The region of the Cordilleras is famous for its
beautiful forests. Canadian west is the most attractive part of the country. There snow-capped
mountains and ocean bays create a surprisingly beautiful atmosphere. Besides, Canadian south is
known for its changeable weather. Sometimes it is too humid, and sometimes it is too dry: the weather
can change very quickly. The Niagara Falls situated in that part of the country attracts people from the
whole world by its unusual beauty.
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