2. Theories of Temperament
Esoteric view
Kretschmer’s theory of temperament
Sheldon’s theory of temperament
I.Pavlov’s views of temperament
I.Pavlov’s views of temperament (continuation)
3. Nine temperament characteristics (A. Thomas and S. Chess, 1977)
Temperament characteristics (continuation)
Temperament characteristics (continuation)
Temperament characteristics (continuation)
Temperament characteristics (continuation)
4. Types of Temperament. Choleric
Choleric. Shortcomings
Choleric. Virtues
Sanguine. Shortcomings
Sanguine. Virtues
Melancholic. Shortcomings
Melancholic. Virtues
Phlegmatic. Shortcomings and virtues
5. Character
The character structure
Temperament and Character (differences)
Character traits reflect attitudes:
Category: psychologypsychology

Temperament. Character


1. Concept of Temperament.
2. Theories of Temperament.
3. Temperament Characteristics.
4. Types of Temperament.
5. Concept of Character.

2. Temperament

- individual differences in human motivation and
emotion that appear early in life, usually thought
to be biological in origin. Temperament is
sometimes considered the biological or
physiological component of personality, which
refers to the sum total of the physical, emotional,
mental, spiritual, and social dimensions of an
The word "temperament“
comes from Latin
"temperare", "to mix".

3. 2. Theories of Temperament

Hippocrates (460 BC – 370 BC)
divided humanity into four basic
temperaments, around the
year 460 BC. Hippocrates saw
the root of one's temperament
as being derived from the humours
dominant in the body: blood (sanguine), bile
from the liver (choleric), phlegm (phlegmatic),
and bile from the kidneys (melancholic).

4. Esoteric view

A corresponding view, popular amongst the
ancient astrologers and philosophers, would
class individuals according to the elements of
the natural order: respectively, air, fire, water,
and earth.
The ancient theory survives in the
form of such expressions as "being
in a bad (or good) humor."

5. Humorism

Galen of Pergamon (129 – 199/217)
advanced Hippocrates’ theory,
creating a typology of human
Hippocrates’ and Galen’s views
based so-called theory of humorism.
Humorism asserts that each person is born with a
basic temperament as determined by which of the four
humors tends to predominate in the individual.

6. Kretschmer’s theory of temperament

Ernst Kretschmer (1888 —1964)
German psychiatrist.
In his best-known work,
Physique and Character (1921),
he attempted to correlate body
build and physical constitution
with temperament and mental illness, identifying three
physical types — the pyknic (rotund), the athletic
(muscular), and the asthenic (tall and thin) — and
claiming that different psychiatric disorders were
associated with each of them.

7. Sheldon’s theory of temperament

Kretschmer’s system was later
adapted by the American psychologist
William H. Sheldon (1899 – 1977),
who renamed the types endomorph,
mesomorph, and ectomorph and focused on
their associated personality traits. Both
theorists' work entered into popular culture and
generated further research.

8. I.Pavlov’s views of temperament

I.Pavlov laid the foundations of the contemporary
temperament theory. He extended the definitions of
the four temperament types under study at the time,
updating the names to:
•"the strong and impetuous type (choleric),
•the strong equilibrated and quiet type
•the strong equilibrated and lively type
•the weak type (melancholic)“.

9. I.Pavlov’s views of temperament (continuation)

According to Pavlov, all temperament types
responded to the stimuli the same way, but
different temperaments move through the
responses at different times. He commented
"that the most basic inherited difference. .. was
how soon they reached this shutdown point and
fundamentally different type of nervous

10. 3. Nine temperament characteristics (A. Thomas and S. Chess, 1977)

•Activity refers to the person’s physical energy.
This trait can also refer to mental activity, such
as deep thinking or reading – activities which
become more significant as the person matures.
•Regularity, also known as Rhythmicity, refers
to the level of predictability in a person’s
biological functions, such as waking, becoming
tired, hunger, and bowel movements.

11. Temperament characteristics (continuation)

• Initial reaction. This refers to how the person
responds (whether positively or negatively) to
new people or environments. Does the person
approach people or things in the environment
without hesitation?
• Adaptability refers to how long it takes the
person to adjust to change over time (as
opposed to an initial reaction). Does he or she
adjust to the changes in their environment
easily, or is resistant?

12. Temperament characteristics (continuation)

• Intensity refers to the energy level of a
positive or negative response. Does the person
react intensely to a situation, or does he or she
respond in a calm and quiet manner?
• Mood refers to the person’s general tendency
towards a happy or unhappy demeanor. All
people have a variety of emotions and reactions.
Yet each person biologically tends to have a
generally positive or negative outlook.

13. Temperament characteristics (continuation)

• Distractibility refers
to the person’s tendency
to be sidetracked by other things going on
around them. Does the person get easily
distracted by events in the environment, or can
he or she concentrate despite the interruptions?
• Persistence and attention span refer to the
person’s length of time on a task and ability to
stay with the task through frustrations –
whether he or she stays with an activity for a
long period of time or loses interest quickly.

14. Temperament characteristics (continuation)

• Sensitivity refers to how easily a person is
disturbed by changes in the environment
(sensory threshold). Is the person bothered by
external stimuli like noises, textures, or lights, or
does he or she seem to ignore them?

15. 4. Types of Temperament. Choleric

Enthusiastic, having very high aspirations and
cravings for success. The choleric must be the
best in everything and have the best of
everything. Extremely ambitious, having a keen
intellect, a strong will, strong passions, an
impulse to dominate others becoming their
superior and making them subservient.

16. Choleric. Shortcomings

The choleric is commonly prideful, thinking
highly of his/her great qualities and even
considers his/her faults worthy of praise. Also, is
stubborn and has an opinion on everything. The
choleric believes he/she is always right. The
choleric is confident, believes others are weak,
ignorant, incompetent and slow. Upon
humiliation the choleric feels hurt resulting in
anger, deceit, and judgments towards others.

17. Choleric. Virtues

The choleric possesses a sharp, keen intellect
and will combine with great enthusiasm. Very
successful in his/her profession, working
diligently in spite of obstacles. Cholerics are
brief, precise, and sure in their speech.

18. Sanguine

Easily excited by external influences, reacting
quickly, although the impression is often shortlived. There is somewhat of a superficiality, lack of
depth, in the sanguine personality. The sanguine
commonly follows others and has little stability as a
result. Fickle in ideas, opinions, and resolutions. The
sanguine rarely internalizes his/her focus and
instead devotes attention to the external (his/her
appearance, and of others, to fashions and
manners). The sanguine is full of optimism.

19. Sanguine. Shortcomings

Vanity and self-complacency, loving the appearance
of his/herself and the praise of others. The sanguine
cannot be left alone. There is love of pleasure that
accompany the desire to always have someone
around to enjoy life with. The sanguine decision are
likely to be the wrong decisions, their undertaking
fail easily since they believe success is inevitable and
will therefore take it for granted, they are unstable,
and they have little understanding of themselves
since they rarely internalize conflict.

20. Sanguine. Virtues

Everyone loves and knows the sanguine. He/she has
the most friends and easily makes new friends. The
sanguine is extremely friendly, pleasant, and willing
to accommodate. Is often found entertaining others,
is compassionate towards others, and is graced with
the gift of calling others out on their faults without
bringing humiliation or displeasure. Rarely shows
resentment or defiance. Wishes the best for

21. Melancholic

The Melancholic is easily excited by things.
However, the initial reaction of excitement is weak, but
the impression remains long and grows stronger. Such
person is inclined to deep thoughts and reflection, is
very profound and is not satisfied with the superficial.
The melancholic is most comfortable alone, and in
silence. He/she is very introspective. Melancholics are
commonly passive, reserved, irresolute, despondent,
slow in thought and speech. They would rather
withdraw and let others receive recognition, even when
they are praise worthy.

22. Melancholic. Shortcomings

Easily falls into mental distress. They are inclined
to despair, intense expressions of grief, and
occurrences of depression. This can result in selfpity, and he/she may become a burden to
friends and family, can also lose confidence in
others, specifically superiors. He/she is
suspicious, lacks trust in people and fears that
everyone is out to get him/her. He/she is
pessimistic about everything.

23. Melancholic. Virtues

Loves solitude and is often productive in
solitary hobbies encompassing arts, crafts,
writing, contributing deep and profound
thoughts and ideas to poetics, science and
legislation, etc. Melancholics are excellent
counselors and encouragers to friends, they
are trustworthy and genuine. They are willing
to make extreme sacrifices for the sake of

24. Phlegmatic

Not moved by impressions at all; the reaction is
missing, or empty, and they fade quickly. There
is little interest in what is going on around
him/her. Loves leisure, and is often unmotivated
to work. Everything proceeds at a slow pace.

25. Phlegmatic. Shortcomings and virtues

Inclined to things that require little to no effort,
eating, drinking, is lazy, and neglects duties. Often
misses opportunities, has no ambition and no
aspirations in life.
Perseverant. Not easily offended, and not moved by
failures or sufferings. Always maintains composure, is
thoughtful and deliberate. He/she has a sober, objective,
rational, and practical judgment. Demands little in life,
and has not intense passions.



28. 5. Character

Character refers to the sum of the characteristics
possessed by a person in society. It is a system of
stable personality qualities acquired and revealed
by a person in social activity.
The word “character” comes
from Greek “kharakter” "engraved mark“

29. The character structure

- is a system of relatively
permanent traits that are
manifested in the specific
ways that an individual
relates and reacts to
others, to various kinds of
stimuli, and to the

30. Temperament and Character (differences)

1. Temperament is biologically determined (by
the type of a person’s nervous system) and
inherited where character is a product of the
social environment.

31. (continuation)

2. Temperamental features may be identified
from early childhood, whereas character is
shaped in later periods of development.

32. (continuation)

3. Individual differences in temperamental traits
like anxiety, extraversion-introversion, and
stimulus-seeking are also observed in animals,
whereas character is the prerogative of humans.


To study the topic
“Character Structure”
Maksymenko S. D. General psychology. – Vinnytsya,
Nova Khvylya, 2005. – P. 272-281

34. Character traits reflect attitudes:

• Attitudes towards work (responsibility, discipline,
diligence, punctuality, lack of organization);
• Attitudes towards other people (support,
objection, attentiveness, politeness);
• Attitude a person towards oneself (renunciation,
egoism, self-criticism, perfectionism);
• Attitudes towards objects of reality, things (care,
carelessness, wastefulness).
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