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# IE350 Alternative Energy Course

## 1. IE350 Alternative Energy Course

Lecture # 2
Energy Outlook:
World, USA, Armenia
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 2. Energy vs. Power

Fuel ends –
Energy Crisis
The bear outruns –
Power Crisis
Lecture #1 - Introduction
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## 3. Units 1

• 1 Joule - amount of energy required to
exert a force of one newton for a distance
of one meter.
Power = Energy / Time; P=E/t
• If it is generated or spent during 1 second,
then the generator or consumer has the
power capacity of 1 watt:
• 1watt = 1Joule/1second; W=J/s
Lecture #1 - Introduction
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## 4. Units 2

• E = P•t
• 1000W = 1kW of power
capacity.
• 1kW • 60 seconds • 60 minutes
= 1 kWh of energy.
= 3.6 million Joules
Lecture #1 - Introduction
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## 5. Units 3

• Calorie (cal) = heat to increase by 1°C the 1 gram of water.
• Joule (J):
- energy required to exert a force of one newton for a distance of one
meter.
- The work required to move an electric charge of one coulomb through an
electrical potential difference of one volt; or one coulomb volt, with the
symbol C·V.
- The work done to produce power of one watt continuously for one
second; or one watt second (compare kilowatt-hour), with the symbol W·s.
1 kWh = 1000 W · 3600 S = 3.6 · 10 6 J (W·s) = 3.6 MJ.
• 1 cal ≈ 4.184 Joules
• BTU = British Thermal Unit = amount of heat required to raise the
temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. 143 BTU is
required to melt a pound of ice.
• 1 BTU ≡ 1054.35 Joules ≈ 1/3600 kilowatt hour.
• MMBTU = 1 000 000 BTU, here M = Mille = 1000 (not Mega, every where
else M = Mega = 1 000 000)
• We will frequently use:
Exajoule (EJ) = 1018 J, 1 EJ = 277.[7] billion kWh;
Quad = quadrillion BTU = 1015 BTU, 1 EJ ≈ 1 Quad
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orders_of_magnitude_(energy)
Lecture #1 - Introduction
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## 6. Your homework

-5 for capacity mismatch related unclear calculation.
-5 incorrect units used.
-5 total for the column “Time used per month, h” meaningless.
-5 no percentages calculated.
-3 no excel functions used or no excel used.
-3 formatting - unnecessary or insufficient decimals.
-3 not compared with real bill.
-2 for capacity mismatch related representation. Use total power capacity for
each line.
-2 some missing important items. e.g. fridge.
-2 power rating for some items unrealistic.
-2 times for some items unrealistic – hence mismatch with the real paid bill.
-2 tariff rating either incorrect and or unrealistically uniform
-2 calculation unclear
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 7. 1 The history of human energy consumption

How much energy do we need?
Where do we spend energy?
Home: heat; light; electricity (homework).
Industry:
agriculture
manufacturing
services
infrastructure, transportation.
• Industrial Revolution and Energy.
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 8. The Coming Oil Crisis

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 9. Increasing demand!

• In 2008, total worldwide energy
consumption was 474 exajoules
(474×1018 J=132,000 TWh).
• This is equivalent to an average
energy consumption rate of 15
terawatts (1.504×1013 W).
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 10. The potential for renewable energy

• solar energy >1600 EJ (444,000 TWh),
• wind power 600 EJ (167,000 TWh),
• geothermal energy 500 EJ (139,000
TWh),
• biomass 250 EJ (70,000 TWh),
• hydropower 50 EJ (14,000 TWh)
• ocean energy 1 EJ (280 TWh).
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 11. Rate of world energy usage in terawatts (TW), 1965–2005 (all types of energy)

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 12.

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 13. GDP and energy consumption in Japan

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 14. Energy intensity of different economies

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 15. The history of human energy consumption

w,
o
l
F
s
gy
r
d
e
a
u
n
E
Q
,
5
0
20
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 16. U.S. Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2009. From the U.S. Energy Information Administration (Department of Energy).

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 17.

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 18.

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 19.

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 20. http://www.iea.org/etp/explore/

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 21.

= Billion kWh
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 22.

Ð²Ú²êî²ÜÆ ¾Üºð¶²Ø²Î²ð¶
1988Ã.
î»Õ³Ï³Ûí³Í Ñ½áñáõÃÛáõÝ
¾É»Ïïñ³¿Ý»ñ·Ç³ÛÇ ³ñï³¹ñáõÃÛáõÝ
êå³éáõÙ Ñ³Ýñ³å»ïáõÃÛáõÝáõÙ
²ñï³Ñ³ÝáõÙ
3 560 Øìï
15.28 ÙÉñ¹. ÏìïÅ
12.36 ÙÉñ¹. ÏìïÅ
2.92 ÙÉñ¹. ÏìïÅ
¾Ý»ñ·³ÏÇñÝ»ñÇ ëå³éáõÙÁ
1985-1988ÃÃ.
- 12-13 ÙÉÝ. ï.å.í./ï³ñÇ
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 23.

¾Ý»ñ·³Ñ³Ù³Ï³ñ·Ç óáõó³ÝÇßÝ»ñÁ
2012Ã.
3 058Øìï – ï»Õ³Ï³Ûí³Í Ñ½áñáõÃÛáõÝ
(850 Øìï)
8 036 ÙÉñ¹. ÏìïÅ – ³ñï³¹ñ³Ýù
5 924 ÙÉñ¹. ÏìïÅ – í»ñçÝ³Ï³Ý ëå³éáõÙ
1 551 .9 ÙÉÝ. ÏìïÅ – ³ñï³Ñ³ÝáõÙ
96.7 ÙÉÝ. ÏìïÅ – Ý»ñÙáõÍáõÙ
1 595 Øìï – Ñ³Ù³Ï³ñ·³ÛÇÝ åÇÏ (20:00)
~930 000 – µ³Å³Ýáñ¹
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 24.

2012Ã.-Ç Ñ½áñáõÃÛ³Ý ¨
¿É»Ïïñ³¿Ý»ñ·Ç³ÛÇ Ñ³ßí»ÏßÇé
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 25.

¾É»Ïïñ³¿Ý»ñ·Ç³ÛÇ Ñ³ßí»ÏßÇé
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 26. Armenia’s Energy Consumption, 2010

• Electric power: 5 500 MWh
• Thermal Energy: 10 000 MWh
• Transportation: 28 000 MWh
(Thermal and transport in
equivalent of primary energy
calorific content)
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 27.

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 28.

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 29. Today’s energy challenge Rising demand

Europe and
North America
11%
31%
China
105%
M. East and
Africa
IEA forecast 2006-30
Growth in primary
energy demand
73%
131%
195%
India
126%
282%
Growth in
electricity demand
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 30. Electrical Energy Production, World, 18000 Bln KWh

Cost
E-Cent/ kWh
Solar-P:
50
Solar-T: 10- 20
Wind:
8
Nuclear:
3
Hydro:
2
Thermal.
2
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 31. Average Solar Radiation per Day

Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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## 32. Homework

• Calculate how many times more
energy annually will need a. China,
b. mankind, if the average world
consumption rate per capita is the
same as in the USA.
Lecture #2 - Energy Outlook: World,
USA, Armenia
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