Object-Oriented JavaScript
Scope: Inner Functions
Context: Changing Contexts
Context: Changing Contexts
Context: Changing Contexts
Object Oriented Programming
Object Oriented Programming
About Objects
Public Methods
Public Methods
Private Methods
Private Methods
“Privileged” Methods
“Privileged” Methods
Questions ?
Category: programmingprogramming

OOP part 1. Object-Oriented JavaScript

1. Object-Oriented JavaScript

2. JavaScript

Hello World!
We are here
Pseudoclassical Inheritance

3. JavaScript

What we’ll be talking about
Appling to OOP

4. Functions

In JavaScript, functions are treated as values, which
Functions can be assigned to variables
Functions can be passed as arguments to other functions


// Using an anonymous function as an argument
setTimeout( function () {
alert( “Refresh” );
}, 1000
// Using a function as a variable
var myFunc = function () {
alert( “Refresh” );
setTimeout(myFunc, 1000); // Or myFunc();

6. Scope

Only functions have scope. Blocks (if, while, for, switch)
do not.
All variables are within the global scope unless they are
defined within a function.
All global variables actually become properties of the
window object
When variables are not declared using the var keyword,
they decared globally.

7. Scope

var foo = “orig”;
if ( true ) {
foo = “new”;
// foo is now a global variable
// Global foo now equals “new”
// create function to modify its own foo variable
function test () {
var foo = “old”;
alert( foo == “new” );
// Global foo still equals “new”

8. Scope

If you forget to use the var keyword to define a value within a
function—even if it’s only used within the function—the value
will be defined globally.
var foo = “new”;
alert( foo == “new” );
// Omitting the var keyword reverts scope
// of foo to global level
function badTest () {
foo = “bad news”;
// Global foo now equals “bad news”
alert( foo == “bad news” );

9. Scope: Inner Functions

Functions can be defined within one another
Inner functions have access to the outer function’s
variables and parameters.
function getRandomInt(max) {
var randNum = Math.random() * max;
function ceil() {
return Math.ceil(randNum);
return ceil(); // Notice that no arguments are passed
// Alert random number between 1 and 5

10. Closures

Inner functions maintain the scope they enjoyed when
their parent function was called—even after the parent
function has terminated.
This allows you to effectively pass variables to
functions that may not be called for some time.

11. Closures

function delayedAlert (message, delay) {
// Set an enclosed callback
setTimeout( function () {
// Use message variable passed to outer function
}, delay);
// Display a message with a 5 second delay
delayedAlert(“Refresh”, 5000);

12. Context

Your code will always be running within the context of
another object
Context is maintained through the use of the this
function increment() {
this.x = this.x || 0;
return this.x++;
alert( increment() == 0 );
alert( increment() == 1 );

13. Context

var myObject = {
set: function (newVal) { this.val = newVal; }
alert( myObject.val == null ); // val property not set yet
alert( myObject.val == “Refresh” ); // val equals “Refresh”
// Change the context of set() to the window object
window.set = myObject.set;
window.set( “Refresh Jacksonville” );
alert( myObject.val == “Refresh” );
alert( window.val == “Refresh Jacksonville” );

14. Context: Changing Contexts

JavaScript provides two handy functions for executing a
function within the context of another function:
call( )
apply( )

15. Context: Changing Contexts

Using call() — Arguments passed by name
// Simple function to change the color style of a node
function changeColor (newColor) {
this.style.color = newColor;
// window.changeColor has no style property, so call fails
changeColor( “red” );
// Grab the DOM node with the id “required”
var reqField = document.getElementById( “required” );
// Call changeColor() within reqField’s context
changeColor.call( reqField, “red” );

16. Context: Changing Contexts

Using apply() — Arguments passed as an array
// Simple function to change the color style of a node
function changeColor (newColor) {
this.style.color = newColor;
// Set the text color of the body element
function setBodyTextColor () {
changeColor.apply( document.body, arguments );
setBodyTextColor( “black” );

17. Object Oriented Programming

Constructors and methods

18. Object Oriented Programming

Now let’s apply all of this information to a more classical
view of OOP in JavaScript:
Object Methods

19. About Objects

Almost everything written in JavaScript is an object
Objects can be though of as a collection of
properties—much like a hash in other languages
JavaScript doesn’t have a concept of classes like other
object-oriented languages
Classes are simulated using a concept called prototypal

20. Constructors

Like other languages, JavaScript uses the new operator to create
new instances of objects.
// Create User object constructor
function User ( name ) {
this.name = name;
// Create a new instance of a User
var me = new User(“Bob”);
// Alert new user’s name
alert( me.name == “Bob” );
// Cannot call User directly
alert( User.name == undefined ); // window.name is undefined

21. Methods


22. Public Methods

One way to create a public method—a function that can
be freely reference by code outside your object—is to
attach it to the object’s prototype.
An object’s prototype is a special property that acts as a
base reference of your object.
This prototype object is copied and applied to all new
instances of your object.

23. Public Methods

// Our User object written a different way
var User = function (name) {
this.name = name;
// Add a public accessor method for name
User.prototype.getName = function () {
return this.name;
var me = new User( “Bob” );
alert( me.getName() == “Bob” );

24. Private Methods

Private methods are functions that are only accessible to
methods inside your object and cannot be accessed by
external code.

25. Private Methods

// Our User object with some changes
var User = function (name) {
this.name = name;
function welcome () {
alert( “Welcome back, ” + this.name + “.”);
// Create a new User
var me = new User( “Bob” );
// Alerts: “Welcome, Bob.”
// Fails because welcome is not a public method

26. “Privileged” Methods

The term privileged method was coined by Douglas
Crockford. It is not a formal construct, but rather a
Privileged methods essentially have one foot in the door:
Then can access private methods and values within the
They are also publicly accessible

27. “Privileged” Methods

// Our User object with some tweaks
var User = function (name, age) {
var year = (new Date()).getFullYear() – age;
this.getYearBorn = function () {
return year;
// Create a new User
var me = new User( “Bob”, 28 );
// Access privileged method to access private year value
alert( me.getYearBorn() == 1980 );
// Fails because year is private
alert( me.year == null );
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