Childhood Education and References for Sustainable Education
The main classifications of methods of education. Characteristics of the methods of upbringing, the most effective in school
What is Philosophy of Education
Sustainable Education
Seminar tasks
Category: englishenglish

Childhood Education and References for Sustainable Education

1. Childhood Education and References for Sustainable Education


Education is a purposeful activity. By education we intend to bring certain
desirable changes in the students. Education is a conscious effort and, as
such, it has definite aims and objectives. In the light of these aims the
curriculum is determined and the students’ academic achievements are
Aims of education are not fixed, eternal and universal. These are
changeable and relative.
Idealism stands for absolute, ultimate, eternal and universal values.
It advocates high ideals of life, which are mainly spiritual in nature.
Idealism pleads “knowledge for knowledge’s sake.”
In an idealist society, education is for the general and moral
development of a person.


Pragmatism does not believe in absolute and eternal values:
philosophy of life is always reflected in the aims of education.
Plato considered that the guardians of the state should have high
philosophical ideals. Locke emphasized “the disciplined and
well-ordered mind.” Hegel stress on idealistic aim of
education, i.e. glorification of the state and the fulfillment of the
will of the absolute. Marx was a materialist. So he emphasized
material aim of education, i.e., the practical economic needs of
man. In a materialist society, educational aims are based on the
materialistic outlook of the people. In such a society moral or
spiritual values have nothing to do with education. The idealist
society tries to glorify those values and emphasize moral
upliftment/grows of personality.


Historical Evolution of Aims of Education
In Ancient India the ideal of life was spiritualistic. Educational aim
was determined by the conception of life. Thus the aim of education
was self-realization or the realization of Brahma or the Absolute.
In ancient Sparta education was not individualistic but socialistic.
Each man was born not for himself, but for the state. The state itself
was a school. The immediate aim of this state-controlled system of
education was to train the youths in military barracks away from
home, to develop a hardy mind in a hardy body, to produce
courageous soldiers. Individual liberty was thus not allowed.
Education was primarily physical.
Athenian education aimed at harmonious development of personality
physical, intellectual, moral and aesthetic. It secured harmony
between the individual and the state, between physical and mental
development, between thought and action. Its immediate aim was to
develop a beautiful mind in a beautiful body.


Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the Greek idealists, discarded
extremely individualistic aim of education.
Socrates emphasized on the acquisition of universal and eternal
knowledge or truth. Plato advocated harmonious development of all
the powers of the individual and equated personal realization with
social solidarity. Aristotle championed the ideal of harmony
between the individual and the society, between intellect and
character and theory and practice.
The ancient Romans had no interest in the acquisition of purely
theoretical knowledge. Their outlook was materialistic. Their
highest aim of life was the attainment of material success. The aim
of Roman education was, therefore, to produce a worthy citizen of
the Roman state, able to enjoy the rights and perform the duties of a


Due to religious, social, psychological and pedagogical reasons, a
new theory of education, known as theory of mental or formal
discipline came into vogue. John Locke was the historical
representative of this new doctrine. According to him, the aim of
education should be to produce a sound mind in a sound body. The
aim of education would be to discipline all the faculties such as
memory, imagination, perception, thinking etc.
A true individualistic ideal of education came into existence in the
18th century. J.J. Rousseau’s concept of negative education
emphasized education according to nature. The child was regarded
as the important and the central factor in the field of education. The
aim of education should be therefore, spontaneous natural selfdevelopment of the child’s nature in close contact with nature. Kant
was greatly influenced by the individualistic concept of education
and defined education as the process by which man becomes man
through his voluntary efforts.


Pestalozzi introduced the psychological tendency in education
and with it the child-centric movement in education received
a new momentum and fillip. According to him, education was
the process of the spontaneous unfolding of latent powers of
the individual towards perfection. Herbart shouldered this
task and he developed a systematic psychology of the
methods of teaching. Froebel, the German idealist, regarded
education as the spontaneous development of a joyful,
creative self activity.


Teaching and learning in character education – forms and processes
Joel Kupperman (1991) suggests three stages of character education;
first, the formation of good habits without serious moral reflection,
second a period during which students begin to question and to
develop a moral perspective of their own, and third the formation
of strong personal identity with the capacity to make moral
judgments of one’s own.
Methods are adapted accordingly; dogmatic but not authoritarian
instruction with sensitivity to feelings for others is followed
by a study of literature so that other lives can be appreciated,
discussed and judged, leading to the life-long process of
active involvement in making one’s own character.


Bill Puka (2000) identifies six teaching methods. These are 1)
instruction in basic values and virtues; 2) behavioural codes
established and enforced; 3) telling stories with moral lessons, 4)
modelling desirable traits and values; 5) holding up moral
exemplars in history, literature, religion, and extolling their traits; 6)
providing practical opportunities in school and in community where
students can exercise these good traits. The methodology is
indiscriminating in the sense that it can be applied in the delivery of
the full range of approaches to character education from a total
moral relativism to moral values objectively rooted in human nature.

10. The main classifications of methods of education. Characteristics of the methods of upbringing, the most effective in school

Methods of upbringing
formation of
Ethical conversation
Methods of organizing
activities and
the formation of
Public opinion
Educational situations
Methods of

11. What is Philosophy of Education

All teachers have a personal philosophy that
colors the way they teach
Engaging in philosophy helps clarify what
they do or intend to do, justify or explain
why they do what they do in a logical,
systematic manner

12. Sustainable Education

Childhood education means care, education and
teaching for children from the birth to till the
Finnish Mauri Åhlberg (2003) writes that sustainable
development is a global goal, set in order to ensure the s
survival and continuation of life on earth.
Sustainable development is development in which real
long-term needs of both present and future human
generations are met as optimally as possible.


Åhlberg (2003) proposes that there are three
strands in Environmental Education:
1) education and learning about environment
(Diverse physical locations, makes teaching so interesting)
2) education and learning in environment
(learning resources and technology, means of teaching, modes of learning)
3) education and learning for environment
(creating positive learning environment)
The last one comes nearest to Education for
Sustainable Development.


Education for Sustainable Development,
when at its best, is integrating best theories
and best practices, testing constructed new
theories both theoretically and empirically
when it is possible
Sustainable development is a concept that
focuses the attention of human beings on
the conditions of continuity of life.


Lakatos (2002: 20-21) writes that education is the key
factor in ensuring sustainable development. It is the
process of education and learning that leads to an evergrowing number of people, who are sensitive to
environmental issues.
Lakatos writes that education for sustainable development
trains teachers, who are capable of coupling their
ecological, economic and environmental knowledge
with other subjects and disciplines.


L.Vygotsky’s theories are based on the social roots of development.
He makes difference between two types of social factors: 1)
cultural-historical and 2) interaction of individuals.
Cultural factors comprise institutions, working tools and sign
systems, created previously by people, and that have developed
differently in different cultures.
The interaction and development of individuals can only be
understood in relation to these historic-cultural systems of social
Vygotsky uses the term social situation of development assuming
that a social situation determines the forms and the path that the
child will follow in the course of development and learning.

17. Didactics

Didactics (Brotherus, Hytˆnen & Krokfors, 2002: 105) is a
discipline, the study of teaching. The development of
didactics is closely connected to the history of
development of school teaching. The term school
pedagogy refers to the relationship between school and
Didactics is a doctrine about teaching. It offers guidelines
for the best possible way for reaching through teaching
the goals, set by the curriculum.
Teaching is a comprehensive process, it is planning, action
and evaluation.

18. Constructivism

Teaching is closely related to knowledge, learning and
theories of learning.
Constructivist theory is currently popular as a basis for
understanding learning. The notion is that a child constructs
knowledge through learning and that earlier knowledge
structures channel the adoption of new knowledge.
Constructivism is a theory on learning. Learning is a
psychological process within a human mind.
Constructivist learning is an unending renewal of the
relationship between an individual and the environment.


Key concepts & definitions in designing sustainable education
Aims (desired
The final impacts on peoples’ lives or the
environment that you wish to achieve
To reduce our individual and community
carbon emissions & contribution to climate
change; to contribute to a fairer, more
prosperous and sustainable community; to
improve well-being
The changes you need to make so that you
achieve your aims (desired impacts)
To increase personal agency; to encourage
more sustainable living/behaviours; to
increase community resilience/capacity to
withstand external shocks; supportive and
fair government policies
The immediate and direct result of your
activities that contribute to your objectives
(desired outcomes)
To engage X participants in projects/
events/training from y and z demographic
groups; to plant X trees, to facilitate
swapping of Y items at a Bring & Take event
The programme & project activities and
processes you undertake so that you achieve
your desired outputs
Community engagement & awareness
raising; action/learning groups on household
energy use & lifestyles; community food,
transport, waste reduction projects
The key human, financial, technical,
organisational and/or social resources that you
need to undertake your activities
Volunteer capacity and availability; access to
IT and other online resources; fund raised
and available

20. Seminar tasks

Mechanisms of sustainable education
Methods and forms of upbringing process
John Dewey’s Theories of Education
How young people today understand their moral identity
How education contributes towards the formation of
What are the key influences on young people’s character


Project Work
1. What do students consider to be appropriate virtues and values
for life in 21st century society?
2. How do students understand those virtues and values?
3. Actively growing and changing as a person and a learner
4. What is the ‘language in use’ by young people?
5. Qualities of being a Learner (to be good or bad student)
6. How and in what ways do schools and colleges inhibit or
develop the formation of virtues and dispositions of character in
Sixth Form students?
7. The development of values, attitudes and personal qualities
8. Education for adult life: the spiritual and moral development of
young people
9. Character education: the challenge and the model
10. Character Education: Lessons from Past and models for Future


The Montessori Method.
The Montessori approach is designed to support the
natural development of children in a wellprepared environment.
Five basic principles fairly and accurately represent
how Montessori educators implement the
Montessori method in many kinds of programs.
1. respect for the child, 2. the absorbent mind, 3.
sensitive periods, 4. the prepared environment,
and 5. auto education.
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