The syllable as a phonetic and phonological unit. Types of syllables. Syllable patterns. Phonotactics
1. The syllable as a phonetic and phonological unitTypes of syllables. Syllable patterns.
2. The syllable as a phonetic and phonological unit• Sounds (phonemes) are the smallest
segments into which the speech
continuum is generally divided for
purposes of analysis, because these
units serve to differentiate words.
3. The syllable as a phonetic and phonological unit. Types of syllables. Syllable patterns. Phonotactics.When we pronounce a syllable, the
speech organs, while producing a
consonant, take all the positions
necessary for the following vowel, for
example note the movements of the
tongue and the lips in /su:n/ “soon”,
4. The syllable as a phonetic and phonological unit. Types of syllables. Syllable patterns. Phonotactics.The syllable can be considered as both a phonetic and a
phonological unit. As a phonetic unit the syllable is
defined in articulatory, auditory (perceptual) and acoustic
terms with universal application for all languages.
As a phonological unit the syllable can be defined and
described only with reference to the structure of one
particular language. The very term “syllable” denotes
particular ways in which phonemes are combined in a
5. The approaches to defining a syllableTwo approaches to defining a syllable:
The first approach defines the syllable as
sequence of segments. The syllable is a unit
consisting of 0 or more consonants followed
by a vowel followed by 0 or more consonants.
A vowel may be replaced by a syllabic
6. The approaches to defining a syllableThe formula of a syllable:
where Cn = any number of
and V = vowel or syllabic
7. The approaches to defining a syllableThe second approach defines syllables by their
sonority (or relative loudness). Some types of
phonemes appear to be more sonorous (louder)
8. The approaches to defining a syllableSyllable is an element of speech that acts as a unit of
rhythm, and has internal structure. The constituent
parts are ONSET and RHYME, within the rhyme
we find the NUCLEUS and CODA. The
NUCLEUS is obligatory, other parts are optional.
The smallest syllable contains a nucleus only.
9. Types of syllablesDepending on the position of consonants (C) in
relation to the vowel (V), there are 4 types of
10. Types of syllablesOpen syllables
there is no
vowel: far, tie,
followed by a
the vowel is
preceded by a
when there is
vowel: apt, eat,
11. Syllable patterns.The fundamental syllable type in English is the closed
syllable, whereas in Russian it is the open syllable.
As to the presence, number and arrangement of
consonants there are 23 syllable patterns in English , such
as V, VC, CVC, CV, CCVC, CCVCC, CCCVC, CCCVCC etc.
The vowel may occur alone in a syllable or it may have up
to 3 consonants before it and up to 4 consonants after it.
The most frequent and fundamental pattern in English is
12. PhonotacticsAs a phonological unit, the syllable
requires a separate definition for each
individual language, because each
language has its own rules of
combining its phonemes into
syllables, or PHONOTACTICS.
13. Phonotactics.In every language certain sound sequences are
not permitted. This is called called
‘phonotactic constraints’. English permit
more combinations of consonants than many
14. Phonotactics.Some combinations that don't occur in
English (e.g., syllable-initial /tl/) are
permissible in other languages (e.g.,
When the English first attempt the initial
/kn/ of German KNABE (boy), they insert
a vowel and make it /kǝ’nɑ:bǝ/, i.e. three
syllables rather than two (as is for
Germans), because /kn/is no longer a
permissible initial sequence in English.
15. Phonotactics.So, phonologically, the
syllable is a structural unit,
which consists of a vowel
(or a syllabic sonorant)
surrounded by consonants
in the numbers and
arrangements permitted by
a given language.