1. Past perfect continuous Theme: dental clinicKaraganda State Medical University
The chair of foreign languages
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
Made by: Kopbayeva N 2-006 stom
2. Dental clinic• The Dental Clinic at the Health Center emphasizes
patient education to prevent disease and provides
treatment options when procedures are needed. Dental
treatment is provided in the same non-threatening,
responsive, and considerate manner that students have
come to expect of all health care services at the Health
• The dental clinic is staffed by a dentist, a dental assistant,
and a dental hygienist and provides basic dental services
such as exams, cleaning, x-rays, simple restorations and
education regarding good dental hygiene
practice. Specifically, it is estimated as many as three out of four dentists are solo
• Private practitioners work as licensed, self-employed dentists. Because of the relatively
small size of the organization, patients usually get more personalized care from private
• Because there is no administrative structure, solo practitioners must oversee
administrative tasks for the practice, including bookkeeping and procurement.
directly for the hospital. These dental clinics usually are on hospital grounds or in
annexed buildings near the hospital
• For example, the Children's Hospital in Aurora, Colorado, operates the Children's
Hospital Dental Center. The center provides pediatric dentistry services as well as a
residency program for dentists in training.
• Community health centers frequently
provide dental services in addition to
general health care services. These
types of clinics serve a particular
community or population and
combine the efforts of hospitals, the
government and the health care
industry to provide its community
members with adequate health care
services. Often, such health centers
receive federal funding to subsidize
care for the poor and uninsured
Unlike private practices in which
one dentist operates a clinic by
himself, a group practice is an
association of dental professionals.
These professionals work together,
sharing space and using the same
equipment. Although care might
be less personal than private
practice, the presence of more
dentists allows the practice to treat
more patients and pool resources
to buy more equipment and hire
6. Past Perfect Continuous• FUNCTIONS OF THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
• USE 1 Duration Before Something in the Past
We use the Past Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and
continued up until another time in the past. "For five minutes" and "for two weeks" are
both durations which can be used with the Past Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is
related to the Present Perfect Continuous; however, the duration does not continue until
now, it stops before something else in the past.
USE 2 Cause of Something in the Past
Using the Past Perfect Continuous before another action in the past is a good way to
show cause and effect.
• The past perfect continuous is composed of two elements - the past perfect of the
verb to be (=had been) + the present participle (base+ing).
• SHE HAD BEEN WORKING AT COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTER FOR FOUR YEARS WHEN SHE
WENT PRIVATE PRACTICE.
• I HAD NOT BEEN VISITING DANTIST LONG TIME.
• HOW LONG HAD YOU BEEN CLENING YOUR TEETH?
• If you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since
Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Past Continuous rather than the Past
Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence.
Past Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Past Perfect Continuous
emphasizes a duration of time before something in the past. Study the examples below
to understand the difference.
• He was tired because he was exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he was exercising at that exact
• He was tired because he had been exercising so hard.
This sentence emphasizes that he was tired because he had been exercising over a
period of time. It is possible that he was still exercising at that moment OR that he had
• It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any
continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings forMixed Verbs cannot be
used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Past Perfect Continuous with these verbs,
you must use Past Perfect.
• The motorcycle had been belonging to George for years before Tina bought it. Not
• The motorcycle had belonged to George for years before Tina bought it. Correct
• The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only,
never, ever, still, just, etc.
• You had only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived.
• Had you only been waiting there for a few minutes when she arrived?