The Elementary Structure of the Population
1. The Elementary Structure of the Population
2. Population concepts and criteriaThe concept of the population is every
species in a certain area - the habitat. Often
groups, often located everywhere in the area,
can not communicate with each other and
live separately without being reflected. The
number of these groups depends on the
number of species, the historical
(phylogenetic) age, the territory of the
territory and other factors. Population - life
cycles, similar to morphological symptoms,
common sets of gensons.
The term "population" is a Latin term.
populus means people. This term was first
used by geneticist VL Iogansen.
The concept of "populations" is one of the
basic concepts in biology, and genetic,
evolutionary and ecological studies of
populations are combined into a specific
direction - population biology. Population
ecology or demecology is a part of this trend.
another than environmental factors or other living species. Population has all
forms of interpersonal relationships. However, the population is often
dominated by competition and mutually beneficial relationships. Pervasive
relationships in the population are related to the acquisition of generations;
links between parents of different sexes and their parents and descendants.
The main feature of ecosystems and populations is that they are constantly
moving and moving. It affects the system's performance, biodiversity,
structural-functionality. The population level in the organizational system of
living organisms occupies a special place.
On the one hand, the population is an elementary unit of biocenotic
communication, which is a part of the functional ecosystems at different
levels of life: the population-biocenosis-biogeocenosis-biosphere. On the
other hand, the population is an elementary unit of the evolutionary process,
which enters the gene-evolutionary sequence of the phyto genetic bond of
taxa of different levels: the body-population-species-class-brigade-classkingdom.
6. Population Structure and RangeThe structure of the population is divided into sexual, age, spatial, genetic,
environmental and living waves.
1. The first stage of the sexual structure of the populations begins with zygote,
the second stage - from newborns, and the third stage - their sexual maturity.
2. The age-specific structure - depends on the genetic peculiarity of the species.
In a stable population, younger people are more likely than younger adults. The
composition of different organisms consists of descendants, adults.
3. The space is not uniformly distributed among all species and individual
populations. This is directly related to the physical and geographical conditions
of the nutrients in the center.
4. Genetic structure is characterized by allele and frequency of genotype.
5. Ecological structure - distribution of populations according to nutrition of
organisms, age and sex characteristics, moving activity. The causes of rapid
population change are determined by the environmental structure.
6. The wave of life is closely linked to the constant change in the distribution and
quantity in space, which affects the biological, biotic and anthropogenic factors.
7. Population typesIn the normal population - all ages should be equal. If there are many older people in the
population, they breed the reproduction function. Such populations are called regressive
populations or dying populations. The majority of young populations in the population
are called renewable or invasive. The life span of the population does not cause fears,
but the number of judges may be very high, as there is no trophic linkage in such
populations. There are other populations of classification. It also categorizes population
depending on the type of reproduction, lifespan, genetic status.
Depending on the location of the population
and the degree of relationships between the
• Simple groups of tribes, characterized by full pansiness. Pankycyia - free flowing of tribes within
populations or in any other subgroups. The term Pamics was introduced in 1885 by Weissmann. In
pancreatic populations, the number of different types of gametes depends on the number of different
types of parent gametes due to the various combinations of various gametes during fertilization of the
reproductive structure of the next generation. One of the ways to examine genetics of such
populations is to determine the character of the distribution of individual heterozygotic agents
• Combined elementary populations in the space. For example, the tribes of
one species live in the forests, as well as pine forests. Here we can say that
there are two ecological populations - the fir and the Karagai populations.
• Combined ecological populations in the space. The geographical population is widely
used to illustrate a set of local populations that are encountered at known geographical
boundaries. Hence, the geographical population is divided into ecological populations,
Geographical which is divided into smaller populations. Thus, the stages of different populations of
different degrees of derivation emerge.
The elemental unity of
evolution, which is
relatively stable over time
in the space and is
capable of spontaneously
forming for a long time
indefinitely long time
Spatial existence in the
space is unstable, unable
to form itself for a long
time. It changes if the
situation changes or
The processes of selfdevelopment and
depend on the ability to
propagation of the population
Population consists of sexually
Population consists of singlemember
populations consist of
different types of parent gametes due to the various combinations of various gametes during
fertilization of the reproductive structure of the next generation. One of the ways to examine
genetics of such populations is to define the nature of the distribution of individual
From the Linnea to the first systematics, all the sub-tribal tribes of the same species were
similar to their external and internal structures, and that they could only see minor differences.
It is now known that this can only be applied to a few species. Types of geographical
populations, which are totally different from those morphological features, are monotype.
Usually, the range of these species is narrow and the conditions of life are quite similar. An
example is the highland species of locusts, which are surrounded by high mountain ridges of
Central Asia. Most species of animals and plants are classified into so-called races, and groups
of geographically or ecologically populated species of racial species that are well differentiated
by the morphology of populations in other species. These types of rare species are called a
political species. The races of political origin may be divided into three types: 1) species, 2)
ecotypes, and 3) biological race.
Type or geographical race means the geographical population of the geographical location,
which separates geographical location indefinitely and morphologically. This definition
indicates that there are specific morphological signs and ranges specific to each species. There
are always intermediate forms in the mixed areas of the same species. Varieties of nature are
always reflected and reproductive, and there are no physiological or genetic differences
gender (male, female, hermaphrodite, parenchyma), as well as
functional, phase and seasonal forms. Examples of different ways of
occurrence of biological forms in different groups of animals are
presented in the analysis of the above-mentioned relationships.
The presence of genetic groups in the population depends on the nature
of the species. Populations of sexually transmitted species are divided
into biotypes. Biodiversity is a genotype of the same group of
individuals. If the number of biotypes in the population is much higher,
then the polymorphism becomes clear, because the heterozygote is a
hybrid of hematopoiesis.
The populations in the self-fertilizing form also consist of different
biotypes, but the organisms in it are homozygous; These are just a few
gametes. Therefore, the population of spontaneous spraying plants
develops as well. This is the term that introduces this term to genetics.
Iohansen. The set of individuals who have melted homozygote from a
homogeneous, self-inflammable mass is called a pure line.
A study of spontaneous plants, such as peas, wheat, barley, oats,
showed that most of these species consisted of pure lines. External
symptoms may be similar, but there are differences in physiological
properties (early ripening, short-term fluctuations, illness, etc.).
13. Thus each population has its own complex structure, which would be represented as a scheme: Population StructureTypes of coexisting living
Up to the next
· Genotypical groups
· Private habitat
· Circles (locks)
· Clear lines
· Temporary clusters
14. The law of Hardy-WeinbergThe basis of the population genetics is
the Law of Hardy-Weinberg. In 1906,
English mathematician Hardy and
German physician Wainberg presented a
independently of each other. The latter
was later called the Hardy-Wainberg
law. When formulating the formula they
did not change the size of the allele
dominated by the dominant and
recessive symptoms, in a certain
P2AA + 2pgAa + g2aa = 1
The law of Hardy-Weinberg requires the
Insufficient numbers of people in the population;
The ability of different genotypes to have the
Conservation of random replication in the