Morphological types of languages
1. Morphological types of languagesMORPHOLOGICAL
Student: Mukhamedieva Zarina
Morphological types f languages
Synthetic languages and
subcategories of synthetic languages
3. 1. Morphology and Morphological typology1. MORPHOLOGY AND
Morphology- the study of word formation and
Morphological typology- a system for classifying
the world's languages based on how their
morphemes are used.
Morphological typology is a way of classifying
the languages of the world that groups languages
according to their
common morphological structures.
4. 2. Morphological types of languages2. MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES OF
Linguists can categorize languages based on their
word-building properties and usage of different
The broadest distinction among languages is
whether or not affixation is allowed at all, or if
every word must be a single morpheme.
Two main morphological types: analytic
languages and synthetic languages.
5. 3. Analytic Languages3. ANALYTIC LANGUAGES
These are also known as isolating languages because
they're composed of isolated, or free, morphemes. Free
morphemes can be words on their own, such
as cat or happy. Languages that are purely analytic in
structure don't use any prefixes or suffixes, ever. However,
it's rare to find a language that is purely analytic or
synthetic since most languages have characteristics of both.
Mandarin Chinese and Vietnamese are good examples of
analytic languages. Note that properties such as “plural”
and “past” comprise their own morphemes and their own
The logographic writing systems of many languages used in
Asia undoubtedly contribute to their analytic nature, since
each symbol they write represents an entire word. English,
on the other hand, is one of the most analytic IndoEuropean languages, but is still usually classified as a
6. 4. Synthetic languages4. SYNTHETIC LANGUAGES
Synthetic languages differ from analytic
languages because they do use affixes, also
known as bound morphemes. Synthetic languages
include three subcategories: agglutinative,
fusional, and polysynthetic.
7. Aglutinating languagsesAGLUTINATING LANGUAGSES
Agglutinative languages have words which may
consist of more than one, and possibly many,
morphemes.With these languages, morphemes
within words are usually clearly recognizable in a
way that makes it easy to tell where the
morpheme boundaries are. Their affixes usually
only have a single meaning. Turkish, Korean,
Hungarian, Japanese, and Finnish are all in this
• el-ler-imiz-in (Turkish)
• hand-plr.-1 st plr.-genitive case, ‘of our hands’
8. Fusional languagesFUSIONAL LANGUAGES
Fusional languages, like other synthetic languages, may
have more than one morpheme per word. The are similar to
agglutinating languages, except that the morpheme
boundaries are much more difficult to discern. Affixes are
often fused with the stems, and can have multiple
meanings. Fusional languages may have morphemes that
combine multiple pieces of grammatical information
A prime example of a fusional language is Spanish,
especially when it comes to verbs. In the word hablo "I
speak", the -o morpheme tells us that we're dealing with a
subject that is singular, first person, and in the present
tense. It's difficult to find a morpheme that means "speak",
however, since habl- is not a morpheme. Fusional
languages can be tricky!
• [ˈabl-o] ‘I am speaking’ -[o] suffix means 1 st person sng.,
9. Polysynthetic languages.POLYSYNTHETIC LANGUAGES.
Polysynthetic Languages: These languages are
undoubtedly some of the most difficult to learn.
• Polysynthetic languages often display a high
degree of affixation (high number of morphemes
per word) and fusion of morphemes.
They often have verbs that can express the
entirety of a typical sentence in English, which
they do by incorporating nouns into verbs forms.
For example, the Sora language of India has one
word that means "I will catch a tiger". Many
Native American languages are polysynthetic.
10. 5. Conclusion5. CONCLUSION
So we’ve looked at canonical examples of four
types of languages: analytical, agglutinative,
fusional, and polysynthetic. • But languages
often show elements of different morphological
types. • If a language is hard to classify as one of
the four main types, it may be considered
“mixed.” The properties that distinguish these
types may in fact be gradient rather than