The development of Phraseology
Terminological problem
The problem of differentiation of a free-phrase, semi-fixed phrases and set-expressions
Specific features of set-expressions
Specific features of set expressions that add to their stability and cohesion.
Diachronic classification
”Thematic” classification by L.P. Smith and W. Ball
Synchronic semantic classification by academician V.V. Vinogradov
Structural classification by I.V. Arnold
Contextual classification by N.N. Amosova.
Classifications based on more than one principle. A.I. Smirnitsky
Classification by A.V. Koonin (1)
Classification by A.V. Koonin (2)
Classification by V.N. Telia.
Categories: englishenglish lingvisticslingvistics

Modern english lexicology. Phraseology. Set-expressions



2. Phraseology

Phraseology (Gr. phraseos – expression, and logos – word,
science) is (1) the branch of linguistics, which
studies the nature, features, origin and
functioning in speech of set-expressions; (2)
all the set-expressions of a given language.
V.N. Telija

3. Phraseology


переменных сочетаний.
А.В. Кунин

4. The development of Phraseology

Ch. Bally
U. Weinreich
A. Makkai
F.F. Fortunatov
A.A. Schachmatov
V. V. Vinogradov
A.V. Kunin
A.I. Smirnitsky
N.N. Amosova
V.N. Telija

5. Set-expression

Set-expression is a word-group consisting of
two or more words whose combination is
integrated as a unit with a specialized
meaning of the whole.
Set-expressions are characterized by stability,
i.e. their fixed and ready-made nature, and
polylexicality, i.e. consisting of more than one
lexical unit.

6. Terminological problem

Set-expressions are also called:
- set phrase (V.V. Vinogradov, semantic approach);
- idiom (N.N. Amosova, contextual approach);
- word-equivalent (A.I. Smirnitsky, functional approach);
- phraseological unit (A.V. Kunin).
The differences in terminology reflect the differences in the
main criteria used to distinguish between free word-groups
and set-expressions.

7. The problem of differentiation of a free-phrase, semi-fixed phrases and set-expressions

The problem of differentiation of a freephrase, semi-fixed phrases and setexpressions
There are two major criteria for distinguishing
between free phrases and set expressions:
semantic and structural.
The semantic criterion realizes in possibility or
impossibility to deduce the meaning of the
whole word-group from the meanings of the
The structural criterion shows in possibility or
impossibility of substitution in a word-group.


Free phrases, e.g. to play with a dog, are
formed in the flow of speech, contain
elements in their individual direct meanings,
have independent syntactic functions.


Semi-fixed combinations, e.g. to play with fire
(“to do smth dangerously”) are stable readymade groups the elements of which have
separate direct meaning but the whole has
the transferred meaning and integral
functions. In these combinations we are able
to fix and even to list the substitutes existing:
e.g. to go to school/market/courts, i.e. it is
used only with nouns of place where definite
actions are performed.


Set expressions: e.g. The French President refuses to play ball.
(coll. “to cooperate with the leader of the other country”).
These are ready-made stable word groups, elements make a fixed
context for each other to form the whole, with one syntactic
function and meaning that is not deduced from the
No substitution is possible apart from pronominal and synonymic
She/he knows on which side her/his bread is buttered
(pronominal substitution)
To stir/move a finger (synonymic substitution).

11. Specific features of set-expressions

Polylexicality - consist of more than one lexical unit;
Structural stability - the components of set expressions are
either irreplaceable (e.g. red tape, mare's nest) or partly
replaceable within the bounds of phraseological or phraseomatic
lexical (e.g. a skeleton in the cupboard—a skeleton in the closet),
grammatical (e.g. to be in deep water—to be in deep waters),
positional (e.g. head over ears—over head and ears),
quantitative (e.g. to lead smb a dance—to lead smb a pretty dance);
Idiomaticity or figurativity - semantic integrity, realized in a
special meaning of the whole in the fixed context which can’t be
deduced from the meanings of its components: e.g. “to let the cat
out of the bag” - “to let some secret become known”.

12. Specific features of set expressions that add to their stability and cohesion.

Rhythmical qualities:
- alliteration, or repetition of initial consonants or vowels: part and
parcel, then and there, without rhyme or reason;
- rhyme: by hook or by crook, wear and tear;
- assonance, or the similarity of internal vowels: high and mighty,
hard and fast;
- reiteration or reduplication:more and more, on and on.
Semantic stylistic features:
- simile: as like as two peas;
- contrast: sooner or later, for love or money;
- metaphor: a lame duck, to swallow the pill;
- synonymy: by leaps and bounds, proud and haughty;
- puns: as cross as two sticks, you lie like a rug.


Principles of classification

14. Diachronic classification

It presents 3 stages of the development of the set
(1) it begins as a free combination;
(2) then it becomes clearly motivated metaphoric
(3) finally it is an idiom (i.e. entirely loses the
meaning of each component).

15. ”Thematic” classification by L.P. Smith and W. Ball

They suggest groups of set expressions used by
sailors, fishermen, soldiers, hunters and
associated with their occupations; groups of
set expressions associated with domestic and
wild animals and birds, agriculture and
cooking, sports, arts

16. Synchronic semantic classification by academician V.V. Vinogradov

phraseological collocations or combinations - one
component is used in its direct meaning, while the other –
figuratively: to have a bite, to look a sight, bosom friends;
phraseological unities - the meaning of the whole does
not correspond to the meanings of its constituents but the
metaphor, on which the shift of meaning is based, is clear
and transperent: to know the way the wind is blowing, to
lose one’s head, a fish out of water, a big bug;
phraseological fusions or concretions - they are
demotivated, i.e. the meaning of the whole cannot be
deduced from the meaning of its components, the
metaphor, on which the shift of meaning was based, is
obscure: tit for tat, neck and crop, at sixes and sevens.

17. Structural classification by I.V. Arnold

verbal: to make a song and dance about sth,
to sit pretty;
substantive: dog’s life, calf love, white lie;
adjectival: spick and span, brand new,
adverbial: high and low, for love or money;
interjectional: my God!, good heavens!,
sakes alive!

18. Contextual classification by N.N. Amosova.

Phrasemes - stable combinations of words in
which either one or both components realise their
meaning only in a particular context: black frost
(“without snow”), a tall story (“improbable, difficult
to believe”);
Idioms - the meaning of each component is
entirely lost and the new meaning is created by
the whole: in the nick of time, red tape.

19. Classifications based on more than one principle. A.I. Smirnitsky

one-summit units - have one meaningful constituent: to give up, to be
two-summit and multi-summit units - have two or more meaningful
constituents: black art, common sense, to fish in the troubled water.
proper phraseological units or collocations - units with nonfigurative meanings, stylistically neutral and in which grammatical and
syntactical centres are in one and same place: get up, fall in love;
idioms or set expressions - units with transferred meanings based
on a metaphor, stylistically coloured and in which grammatical and
syntactical centres are in different components: take the bull by the
horns, dead as a doornail.

20. Classification by A.V. Koonin (1)

Nominative - word-groups with one meaningful
word, coordinative phrases: well and good; wordgroups with a predicative structure, such as as the
crow flies; predicative phrases of the type see how
the land lies (.
Interjectional: a pretty kettle of fish!
Communicative word-groups are represented by
proverbs and sayings: familiarity breeds contempt;
Nominative-communicative units include verbal
word-groups which are transformed into a sentence
when the verb is used in the Passive Voice: to
break the ice – the ice is broken.

21. Classification by A.V. Koonin (2)

3 types of changeability:
synonymic variation (contextual synonyms):
sugar/sweeten the pill, drop a bomb/brick, run
pronominal variation: to give smb/him/her a run for
his/her money, make a pig of oneself, to scratch
one’s back;
synonymic and pronominal variation: give sb a
ring/buzz, drown one’s troubles/sorrows, save one’s

22. Classification by V.N. Telia.

phraseology 1 – idioms;
phraseology 2 – lexical collocations and restricted
collocations or phraseological unities;
phraseology 3 – clichés and conversational formulas;
phraseology 4 – stock phrases;
phraseology 5 – proverbs and sayings;
phraseology 6 – quotations.
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