Andre Marie Ampere
Andre-Marie AMPER (Ampère) (22.01.1775 10.06.1836) Andre-Marie Amper is a French
physicist, mathematician and chemist. He
was born in Lyon in the family of a merchant.
In his father's beautiful library were works of
famous philosophers, scientists and writers.
Young André could sit there all day with a
book, so that he, who never attended school,
was able to acquire extensive and profound
At the age of 11, he had already begun
reading the famous 20-volume
"Encyclopedia" by Diderot and
D'Alembert, and for three years studied
it all. The young man was interested in
elegant literature, and he even wrote
poetry, but physics and mathematics
were much more attractive.
When his father's books were not enough,
Andre Amper began to visit the library of
Lyons College. However, many works of great
scientists were written in Latin, which he did
not know. For several months, Andre
independently studied Latin, and works of
the classics of science XVII-XVIII centuries.
became available to him.
And here is the result of hard work. By the
age of 12, Ampere had independently figured
out the basics of higher mathematics differential calculus, he had learned to
integrate, and at the age of 13 he had
already submitted his first work on
mathematics to the Lyons Academy!
In 1802, Andre Ampere turned 27 years old.
He begins teaching physics and chemistry,
first in Lyon, and two years later at the
famous Polytechnic School (Ecole
Polytechnique) in Paris. After another 10
years, Amper was elected to the Paris
Academy of Sciences, and since 1824 he is a
professor at the Normal School (Ecole
Normale), the main higher educational
institution in Paris
Since 1820, when the discovery of the action
of current on the magnetic needle by Ohrsted
became known, Amper devoted himself
entirely to the problems of electrodynamics.
In the same year he discovered the magnetic
interaction of currents, establishes the law of
this interaction (later called the Ampere law)
and concludes that "all magnetic phenomena
are reduced to purely electric effects."
According to the Ampère hypothesis, any
magnet contains within itself a set of circular
electric currents, the action of which explains
the magnetic forces.
Two more years passed, and Amper
discovered the magnetic effect of a coil with
a current - a "solenoid". It is Amper who
deserves the merit of introducing the terms
"electromotive force", "tension",
"galvanometer", "electric current" and even ...
"cybernetics" into science. Amper proposed to
take for the direction of the direct electric
current the one in which "positive electricity"
simple as he was"
Amper died of pneumonia at the
age of 61 years. On his
tombstone are inscribed the
words: "He was just as kind and
just as simple as great." The unit
of electric current, introduced in
1881, is called the ampere (A) in
honor of Andre-Marie Ampere.