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# Andre Marie Ampere

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Andre Marie AmpereBY:SERZHAN

TANZHARYK

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BIOGRAPHYAndre-Marie AMPER (Ampère) (22.01.1775 10.06.1836) Andre-Marie Amper is a French

physicist, mathematician and chemist. He

was born in Lyon in the family of a merchant.

In his father's beautiful library were works of

famous philosophers, scientists and writers.

Young André could sit there all day with a

book, so that he, who never attended school,

was able to acquire extensive and profound

knowledge

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BIOGRAPHYAt the age of 11, he had already begun

reading the famous 20-volume

"Encyclopedia" by Diderot and

D'Alembert, and for three years studied

it all. The young man was interested in

elegant literature, and he even wrote

poetry, but physics and mathematics

were much more attractive.

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ACHIEVEMENTSWhen his father's books were not enough,

Andre Amper began to visit the library of

Lyons College. However, many works of great

scientists were written in Latin, which he did

not know. For several months, Andre

independently studied Latin, and works of

the classics of science XVII-XVIII centuries.

became available to him.

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ACHIEVEMENTSAnd here is the result of hard work. By the

age of 12, Ampere had independently figured

out the basics of higher mathematics differential calculus, he had learned to

integrate, and at the age of 13 he had

already submitted his first work on

mathematics to the Lyons Academy!

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ANDRE AMPER AS TEACHERIn 1802, Andre Ampere turned 27 years old.

He begins teaching physics and chemistry,

first in Lyon, and two years later at the

famous Polytechnic School (Ecole

Polytechnique) in Paris. After another 10

years, Amper was elected to the Paris

Academy of Sciences, and since 1824 he is a

professor at the Normal School (Ecole

Normale), the main higher educational

institution in Paris

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INVENTIONSSince 1820, when the discovery of the action

of current on the magnetic needle by Ohrsted

became known, Amper devoted himself

entirely to the problems of electrodynamics.

In the same year he discovered the magnetic

interaction of currents, establishes the law of

this interaction (later called the Ampere law)

and concludes that "all magnetic phenomena

are reduced to purely electric effects."

According to the Ampère hypothesis, any

magnet contains within itself a set of circular

electric currents, the action of which explains

the magnetic forces.

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DISCOVERIESTwo more years passed, and Amper

discovered the magnetic effect of a coil with

a current - a "solenoid". It is Amper who

deserves the merit of introducing the terms

"electrostatics", "electrodynamics",

"electromotive force", "tension",

"galvanometer", "electric current" and even ...

"cybernetics" into science. Amper proposed to

take for the direction of the direct electric

current the one in which "positive electricity"

moves.

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"He was just as kind andsimple as he was"

Amper died of pneumonia at the

age of 61 years. On his

tombstone are inscribed the

words: "He was just as kind and

just as simple as great." The unit

of electric current, introduced in

1881, is called the ampere (A) in

honor of Andre-Marie Ampere.

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