Morphology. Morphological Units: Word-form, Morpheme. English Morphemics
1. Morphology. Morphological Units: Word-form, Morpheme. English Morphemics.1. a) Word-form. Morpheme. Morphemics as a Branch of
b) Types of Morphemes: Positional and Functional
c) Morpheme in Descriptive Linguistics. Environment and
Distribution. Distributional classification.
2. Grammatical Category. Grammatical Oppositions.
3. Types of Word-form Derivation. Structural Types of
2. 1(a)Word-form. Morpheme.
Word-form – the expression side of the word, either
phonological or orthographical.
Grammatical word – a complete two-sided sign with specified
grammatical content as well as lexical content and
Lexeme – a set of grammatical words associated with the same
Morphemics – a branch of Grammar that studies, classifies and
describes morphemes and their functions.
3. 1 b)Types of Morphemes: Positional and
- inflections (grammatical endings)
4. 1c) Environment and DistributionEnvironment of a morpheme- adjoining elements in
Distribution – environment in generalised terms of
classes or categories.
Types of Morphemic Distribution:
5. Distributional Classification of MorphemesDegree of self-dependence: bound / free
Formal presentation: covert / overt
Segmental relation: segmental / supra-segmental
Grammatical alternation: additive / replacive
Linear characteristic: continuous / discontinuous
6. 2) Grammatical CategoryGrammatical category – a system of expressing a
generalized grammatical meaning by means of
paradigmatic correlation of grammatical forms.
Paradigm – an ordered set of grammatical forms
expressing a categorial function.
7. OppositionOpposition - a generalized correlation of lingual forms
by means of which a certain function is expressed.
Types of oppositions:
- quaternary, etc.
The most important type: binary privative
8. Oppositional ReductionNeutralization
- usu – weak member is used instead of the strong
- stylistically neutral.
- usu – strong member is used instead of the weak
- stylistically coloured.
9. Classification of Grammatical CategoriesReferent relation: immanent (declensional) /
e.g. number in nouns / number in verbs
Changeability: constant / variable
e.g. gender / number in nouns
10. 3) Types of Word-form DerivationSynthetic Types
- grammatical inflection;
- root combination;
- sound alternations.
11. Morphological Classification of LanguagesFlective languages
- mainly synthetic;
- mainly analytical.