The history if the UK
The roman conquest
The Anglo-Saxon Invasion
The Scandinavian Invasion
The Norman conquest
England of the period of reign of the Normans and Plantagenets
15-16th centuries
17th century
18th century
19th century
20th century
Category: historyhistory

History of Britain


2. The history if the UK

• 1.Celts
• 2.The Roman conquest
• 3.The Anglo-Saxon invasion
• 4.The Scandinavian(Danish) invasion
• 5.The Norman conquest
• 6.England of the period of reign of the
Normans and Plantagenets


• 7.England of the period of reign of
Yorks,Lancasters and Tudors
• 8.England of the period of the bourgeois
revolution and civil war
• 9.Great Britain of the 18th century
• 10.Great Britain of the 19th century
• 11.Great Britain of the 20th century

4. Celts

• The first inhabitants of the British Isles were
nomadic Stone Age hunters. The first Celtic
[`keltik] comers were the Gaels [geils] (гэлы),the
Brythons [`britn] arrived 2 centuries later and
pushed the Gaels to Wales, Scotland, Ireland
and Cornwall taking possession of the south and
east.The Celts of the
British Isles were
heathens. Their
priests were called Druids
, their superior knowledge
was taken for magic power.


The Celts were good
warriors. Celtic warchariots were famous.
On the chariot there
were 3 men: one was
driving, the other 2 did
the fighting.


• The Celts made a great
impression on the
Romans, who saw them
for the first time in the
battle. On the occasion of
the battle hair and
moustaches were painted
red and their legs and
arms were painted blue.
With loud shouts they
attacked the Romans in
chariots and on foot. The
well-armed invincible
Romans under one of the
greatest generals of that
time had to return to

7. The roman conquest







14. The Anglo-Saxon Invasion

• In the 7th century Jutes formed the
kingdom Kent,Angles and Saxons 6
kingdoms: Angles3-Northumbria,East
Anglia(now Norfolk),Suffolk and part of
Cambridgeshire and Mercia; 3 kingdoms
of Saxons:Sussex,Essex and Wessex.In
597 Roman Christianty was
intoduced.The process was completed late
in the 7th century.



The Germanic tribes
of the Angles,
Saxons, Frisians and
Jutes colonised
Southern England,
establishing new
settlements and
cultivating the land.


This period was the transition from
tribal structure to feudalism.
Anglo-saxon invasion practically
destroyed the celtic mode oft life,
economy and social structure. In
597 Roman Christianity was
introduced.(completed in the 7th c)


• Anglo-saxons were heathens. The highest
heathen deity was Woden, the war god.
• Wednesday is named after him.
• Thor-the god of thunder, the weather,
agriculture.(the son of Woden and Freya).
Thursday is named after him.
• Saturn was the God of agriculture and

19. The Scandinavian Invasion

• The Scandinavian Invasion began in the 9th century. By
the 60s of the 9th century Viking of Scandinavia overran
Northumbria, East Anglia and Mercia. In 879 a peace
treaty was signed stipulating a devision of the country
into 2 equal parts: The “Danelaw” in the north-east and
England in the south-west.


The Vikings were superb boat builders.
They introduced their heroic tales to
Northern England and East Anglia, and
possibly brought the game of chess.


Alfred the great made vigorous efforts
to restore the country’s economy and
build up its military potential. He
established fortifications, attempted to
consolidate the state. He did so well
that almost a century after his death
there was comparative peace.

22. The Norman conquest

• When Edward died in 1066 the
Witenagemot (the Council of the
Wisest”)declared Harold king.
• William,the Duke of Normandy declared
himself heir to the throne of England. On
the 14th October 1066 near Hasting
defeated the Anglo-Saxon army.


The Normans conquered Britain in 1066,
and imposed a legal and administrative
system much of which still exists today.


• 20 years after the conquest William I
organised a registration of all the holders
of arable land and pasture. The king’s
agents were so thorough that the census
was nicknamed “Doomsday Book”.

25. England of the period of reign of the Normans and Plantagenets

• The 12th century was a period of reforms
of Henry II Plantagenet.
• Crusades became popular.
• Thomas Becket as the Archbishop of
• The 2nd Plantagenet king, Richard I called
Richard the Lion Heart was enthusiastic
crusader.He fought against Salah-ad-Din.


• In 1215 feudal barons forced the
“tyrannical” King John(1199-1216)to agree
to a series of concessions embodied in a
charter known as the Magna Carta. The
Magna Carta has become part of the
law and established the important
principle that the king is not above the
• In 1284 Wales became a principality
governed separately.
• In 1301 King Edward instituted the title of
the Heir Apparent


• William Wallace, a knight, headed the
Scotch resistance.
• Robert Bruce was crowned King of
• Wat Tyler,Jack Straw, John Ball in 1381
• The 14th century was the time when the
Hundred Years War started (1337-1453)
• Bet-n England and France

28. 15-16th centuries

• Yorkists and Lancastrians
• The war finished in 1485 and Henry VII Tudor
became the king.
• The 2nd Tudor monarch,Henry VIII
• Privy Council
• “The Act of Supremacy”
• In1553 Mary Tudor(1516-1558)ascended the
throne. She got the name Bloody Mary.
• English Renaissance

29. 17th century

• Bourgeois revolution.
• Calvinist protestants
• In 1605 Guy Fawkes attempted to blow up King
• 1640-1642 led to the est-t of the constitutional
• 1642-1649 a period of Civil War
• 1649-1653-3d period of the English revolution
• In 1689 “The Bill of Rights” was adopted and
England became constitutional monarchy.

30. 18th century

• The Kingdom of Great Britain was formed
by the Act of Union(1707)
• Seven Years’ War(1756-1763)
• 1775-1783 the War for Independence
• James Watt’s steam engine in 1783
• Thomas Hobbes, John Locke,Isaac

31. 19th century

• The Luddite movement of 1811-1812
• Peterloo Massacre- workers had no right
to vote and in 1819 60.000 workers took
part in demonstration
• 1842 Chartist’s movement-secret
ballot,equal electoral districts,universal
suffrage for men and women
• The completion of the Suez Canal(1869)

32. 20th century

• In 1907 Britain,France and Russia formed
the Triple Entente, which faced the Triple
Alliance of Germany, Austria and Italy.
• The Statute of
Westminster(1931)established the
Commonwealth of Nations
• In 1949 Britain joined NATO.
• In 1952 Elizabeth II succeeded to the
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